Barbour, Alan G.

InstitutionUniversity of California, Irvine
DepartmentMicrobiology and Molecular Genetics
Address1001 Health Sciences Road
CA 92697-3950
Phone(949) 824-5626
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Evolution and population biology of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii in California
    NIH/NIAID R03AI138111May 9, 2018 - Apr 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development of Peromyscus leucopus as a model organism for research on Lyme disease and other emerging zoonoses
    NIH/NIAID R21AI136523Feb 1, 2018 - Jan 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    A heterogeneous stock paradigm of dissecting complex traits in Peromyscus leucopus, a major natural host of Lyme disease and other emerging infections
    NIH/NIAID R21AI126037Jun 3, 2016 - May 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Borrelia Miyamotoi Infection in Mice and Humans
    NIH/NIAID R56AI114859Sep 1, 2015 - Aug 31, 2016
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Informative immunodiagnostics for Lyme disease
    NIH/NIAID R21AI100236Jun 1, 2012 - May 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pacific Southwest RCE for Biodefense &Emerging Infectious Diseases Research
    NIH/NIAID U54AI065359May 20, 2005 - Apr 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NIAID R13AI038299Jan 1, 1996 - Dec 31, 1996
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NIAID R01AI037248Sep 30, 1994 - Apr 30, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NIAID R01AI029731Apr 1, 1990 - Mar 31, 1995
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NIAID U01AI025896Sep 30, 1987 - Aug 31, 1993
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    NIH/NIAID R37AI024424Dec 1, 1986 - Mar 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NIAID R01AI024424Dec 1, 1986 - Apr 30, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Barbour A, Cook VJ. Genotyping Strains of Lyme Disease Agents Directly From Ticks, Blood, or Tissue. Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1690:1-11. PMID: 29032532.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Marques AR, Yang X, Smith AA, Zhuang X, Turk SP, Williams CD, Law MA, Barbour A, Pal U. Citrate Anticoagulant Improves the Sensitivity of Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi Plasma Culture. J Clin Microbiol. 2017 Nov; 55(11):3297-3299. PMID: 28878005.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Barbour A, Adeolu M, Gupta RS. Division of the genus Borrelia into two genera (corresponding to Lyme disease and relapsing fever groups) reflects their genetic and phenotypic distinctiveness and will lead to a better understanding of these two groups of microbes (Margos et al. (2016) There is inadequate evidence to support the division of the genus Borrelia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.001717). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017 06; 67(6):2058-2067. PMID: 28141502.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Crowder CD, Denny RL, Barbour A. Segregation Lag in Polyploid Cells of the Pathogen Genus Borrelia: Implications for Antigenic Variation?. Yale J Biol Med. 2017 06; 90(2):195-218. PMID: 28656008.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Elbir H, Sitlani P, Bergström S, Barbour A. Chromosome and Megaplasmid Sequences of Borrelia anserina (Sakharoff 1891), the Agent of Avian Spirochetosis and Type Species of the Genus. Genome Announc. 2017 Mar 16; 5(11). PMID: 28302772.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Cook VJ, Fedorova N, Macdonald WP, Lane RS, Barbour A. Unique Strain of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes pacificus Ticks, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 12; 22(12):2205-2207. PMID: 27479523.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Crowder CD, Ghalyanchi Langeroudi A, Shojaee Estabragh A, Lewis ERG, Marcsisin RA, Barbour A. Pathogen and Host Response Dynamics in a Mouse Model of Borrelia hermsii Relapsing Fever. Vet Sci. 2016 Aug 30; 3(3). PMID: 29056727.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Barbour A. Infection resistance and tolerance in Peromyscus spp., natural reservoirs of microbes that are virulent for humans. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2017 01; 61:115-122. PMID: 27381345.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Barbour A. Chromosome and Plasmids of the Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Agent Borrelia hermsii. Genome Announc. 2016 Jun 09; 4(3). PMID: 27284141; PMCID: PMC4901232.
    10. Marcsisin RA, Lewis ER, Barbour A. Correction: Expression of the Tick-Associated Vtp Protein of Borrelia hermsii in a Murine Model of Relapsing Fever. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153906. PMID: 27074024; PMCID: PMC4830521.
    11. Marcsisin RA, Lewis ER, Barbour A. Expression of the Tick-Associated Vtp Protein of Borrelia hermsii in a Murine Model of Relapsing Fever. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0149889. PMID: 26918760; PMCID: PMC4769344.
    12. Wilder HK, Raffel SJ, Barbour A, Porcella SF, Sturdevant DE, Vaisvil B, Kapatral V, Schmitt DP, Schwan TG, Lopez JE. Transcriptional Profiling the 150 kb Linear Megaplasmid of Borrelia turicatae Suggests a Role in Vector Colonization and Initiating Mammalian Infection. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0147707. PMID: 26845332; PMCID: PMC4741519.
    13. Barbour A. Multiple and Diverse vsp and vlp Sequences in Borrelia miyamotoi, a Hard Tick-Borne Zoonotic Pathogen. PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146283. PMID: 26785134; PMCID: PMC4718594.
    14. Krause PJ, Barbour A. Borrelia miyamotoi. In response. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Dec 15; 163(12):964. PMID: 26666795.
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    15. Frank GM, Adalja A, Barbour A, Casadevall A, Dormitzer PR, Duchin J, Hayden FG, Hirsch MS, Hynes NA, Lipsitch M, Pavia AT, Relman DA. Infectious Diseases Society of America and Gain-of-Function Experiments With Pathogens Having Pandemic Potential. J Infect Dis. 2016 May 01; 213(9):1359-61. PMID: 26416656.
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    16. Barbour A. "Lyme": Chronic Fatigue Syndrome by Another Name? Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 01; 62(1):134-5. PMID: 26270685.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Krause PJ, Barbour A. Borrelia miyamotoi: The Newest Infection Brought to Us by Deer Ticks. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Jul 21; 163(2):141-2. PMID: 26053967.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Song Y, Laskay ÜA, Vilcins IM, Barbour A, Wysocki VH. Top-down-assisted bottom-up method for homologous protein sequencing: hemoglobin from 33 bird species. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2015 Nov; 26(11):1875-84. PMID: 26111519.
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    19. Norris SJ, Barbour A, Fish D, Diuk-Wasser MA. Response to Esteve-Gassent et al.: flaB sequences obtained from Texas PCR products are identical to the positive control strain Borrelia burgdorferi B31. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Jun 09; 8:310. PMID: 26050617; PMCID: PMC4489397.
    20. Barbour A, Bunikis J, Fish D, Hanincová K. Association between body size and reservoir competence of mammals bearing Borrelia burgdorferi at an endemic site in the northeastern United States. Parasit Vectors. 2015 May 30; 8:299. PMID: 26024881; PMCID: PMC4459683.
    21. Cook V, Barbour A. Broad diversity of host responses of the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus to Borrelia infection and antigens. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015 Jul; 6(5):549-58. PMID: 26005106; PMCID: PMC4504778.
    22. Brummitt SI, Barbour A, Hue F, Kjemtrup AM. Molecular characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from case of autochthonous Lyme arthritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Dec; 20(12):2168-70. PMID: 25423131; PMCID: PMC4257802.
    23. Norris SJ, Barbour A, Fish D, Diuk-Wasser MA. Analysis of the intergenic sequences provided by Feria-Arroyo et al. does not support the claim of high Borrelia burgdorferi tick infection rates in Texas and northeastern Mexico. Parasit Vectors. 2014 Oct 21; 7(1):467. PMID: 25428816; PMCID: PMC4203928.
    24. Langeroudi AG, Hirsch CM, Estabragh AS, Meinardi S, Blake DR, Barbour A. Elevated carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide ratio in the exhaled breath of mice treated with a single dose of lipopolysaccharide. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2014 Sep; 1(2):ofu085. PMID: 25734151; PMCID: PMC4281777.
    25. Krause PJ, Narasimhan S, Wormser GP, Barbour A, Platonov AE, Brancato J, Lepore T, Dardick K, Mamula M, Rollend L, Steeves TK, Diuk-Wasser M, Usmani-Brown S, Williamson P, Sarksyan DS, Fikrig E, Fish D. Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato seroreactivity and seroprevalence in the northeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Jul; 20(7):1183-90. PMID: 24960072; PMCID: PMC4073859.
    26. Barbour A. Phylogeny of a relapsing fever Borrelia species transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. Infect Genet Evol. 2014 Oct; 27:551-8. PMID: 24813576; PMCID: PMC4182126.
    27. Baum E, Grosenbaugh DA, Barbour A. Diversity of antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected beagle dogs. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Jun; 21(6):838-46. PMID: 24695775; PMCID: PMC4054242.
    28. Lewis ER, Marcsisin RA, Campeau Miller SA, Hue F, Phillips A, Aucoin DP, Barbour A. Fibronectin-binding protein of Borrelia hermsii expressed in the blood of mice with relapsing fever. Infect Immun. 2014 Jun; 82(6):2520-31. PMID: 24686059; PMCID: PMC4019183.
    29. Barbour A, Campeau Miller S. Genome Sequence of Borrelia parkeri, an Agent of Enzootic Relapsing Fever in Western North America. Genome Announc. 2014 Feb 13; 2(1). PMID: 24526628; PMCID: PMC3924360.
    30. Laskay UA, Breci L, Vilcins IM, Dietrich G, Barbour A, Piesman J, Wysocki VH. Survival of host blood proteins in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks: a time course study. J Med Entomol. 2013 Nov; 50(6):1282-90. PMID: 24843933.
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    31. Hue F, Ghalyanchi Langeroudi A, Barbour A. Chromosome Sequence of Borrelia miyamotoi, an Uncultivable Tick-Borne Agent of Human Infection. Genome Announc. 2013 Sep 12; 1(5). PMID: 24029760; PMCID: PMC3772144.
    32. Barbour A, Hirsch CM, Ghalyanchi Langeroudi A, Meinardi S, Lewis ER, Estabragh AS, Blake DR. Elevated carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath of mice during a systemic bacterial infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69802. PMID: 23936104; PMCID: PMC3729689.
    33. Baum E, Randall AZ, Zeller M, Barbour A. Inferring epitopes of a polymorphic antigen amidst broadly cross-reactive antibodies using protein microarrays: a study of OspC proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e67445. PMID: 23826301; PMCID: PMC3691210.
    34. Miller SC, Porcella SF, Raffel SJ, Schwan TG, Barbour A. Large linear plasmids of Borrelia species that cause relapsing fever. J Bacteriol. 2013 Aug; 195(16):3629-39. PMID: 23749977; PMCID: PMC3754566.
    35. Krause PJ, Narasimhan S, Wormser GP, Rollend L, Fikrig E, Lepore T, Barbour A, Fish D. Human Borrelia miyamotoi infection in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 17; 368(3):291-3. PMID: 23323920; PMCID: PMC3934646.
    36. Baum E, Hue F, Barbour A. Experimental infections of the reservoir species Peromyscus leucopus with diverse strains of Borrelia burgdorferi, a Lyme disease agent. MBio. 2012 Dec 04; 3(6):e00434-12. PMID: 23221801; PMCID: PMC3517863.
    37. Barbour A. Remains of infection. J Clin Invest. 2012 Jul; 122(7):2344-6. PMID: 22728928; PMCID: PMC3386833.
    38. Pepin KM, Eisen RJ, Mead PS, Piesman J, Fish D, Hoen AG, Barbour A, Hamer S, Diuk-Wasser MA. Geographic variation in the relationship between human Lyme disease incidence and density of infected host-seeking Ixodes scapularis nymphs in the Eastern United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Jun; 86(6):1062-71. PMID: 22665620; PMCID: PMC3366524.
    39. Laskay ÜA, Burg J, Kaleta EJ, Vilcins IM, Telford Iii SR, Barbour A, Wysocki VH. Development of a host blood meal database: de novo sequencing of hemoglobin from nine small mammals using mass spectrometry. Biol Chem. 2012 Mar; 393(3):195-201. PMID: 22718635.
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    40. Marcsisin RA, Campeau SA, Lopez JE, Barbour A. Alp, an arthropod-associated outer membrane protein of Borrelia species that cause relapsing fever. Infect Immun. 2012 May; 80(5):1881-90. PMID: 22354035; PMCID: PMC3347450.
    41. Diuk-Wasser MA, Hoen AG, Cislo P, Brinkerhoff R, Hamer SA, Rowland M, Cortinas R, Vourc'h G, Melton F, Hickling GJ, Tsao JI, Bunikis J, Barbour A, Kitron U, Piesman J, Fish D. Human risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, in eastern United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Feb; 86(2):320-7. PMID: 22302869; PMCID: PMC3269287.
    42. Brinkerhoff RJ, Bent SJ, Folsom-O'Keefe CM, Tsao K, Hoen AG, Barbour A, Diuk-Wasser MA. Genotypic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi strains detected in Ixodes scapularis larvae collected from North American songbirds. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Dec; 76(24):8265-8. PMID: 20971869; PMCID: PMC3008240.
    43. Barbour A, Travinsky B. Evolution and distribution of the ospC Gene, a transferable serotype determinant of Borrelia burgdorferi. MBio. 2010 Sep 28; 1(4). PMID: 20877579; PMCID: PMC2945197.
    44. Travinsky B, Bunikis J, Barbour A. Geographic differences in genetic locus linkages for Borrelia burgdorferi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Jul; 16(7):1147-50. PMID: 20587192; PMCID: PMC3321895.
    45. Barbour A, Bunikis J, Travinsky B, Hoen AG, Diuk-Wasser MA, Fish D, Tsao JI. Niche partitioning of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi in the same tick vector and mammalian reservoir species. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Dec; 81(6):1120-31. PMID: 19996447; PMCID: PMC2841027.
    46. Girard YA, Travinsky B, Schotthoefer A, Fedorova N, Eisen RJ, Eisen L, Barbour A, Lane RS. Population structure of the lyme borreliosis spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) in Northern California. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Nov; 75(22):7243-52. PMID: 19783741; PMCID: PMC2786521.
    47. Hoen AG, Margos G, Bent SJ, Diuk-Wasser MA, Barbour A, Kurtenbach K, Fish D. Phylogeography of Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States reflects multiple independent Lyme disease emergence events. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 01; 106(35):15013-8. PMID: 19706476.
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    48. Gatewood AG, Liebman KA, Vourc'h G, Bunikis J, Hamer SA, Cortinas R, Melton F, Cislo P, Kitron U, Tsao J, Barbour A, Fish D, Diuk-Wasser MA. Climate and tick seasonality are predictors of Borrelia burgdorferi genotype distribution. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Apr; 75(8):2476-83. PMID: 19251900; PMCID: PMC2675205.
    49. Wickramasekara S, Bunikis J, Wysocki V, Barbour A. Identification of residual blood proteins in ticks by mass spectrometry proteomics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Aug; 14(8):1273-5. PMID: 18680654; PMCID: PMC2600373.
    50. Barbour A, Jasinskas A, Kayala MA, Davies DH, Steere AC, Baldi P, Felgner PL. A genome-wide proteome array reveals a limited set of immunogens in natural infections of humans and white-footed mice with Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 2008 Aug; 76(8):3374-89. PMID: 18474646; PMCID: PMC2493225.
    51. Zhong J, Jasinskas A, Barbour A. Antibiotic treatment of the tick vector Amblyomma americanum reduced reproductive fitness. PLoS One. 2007 May 02; 2(5):e405. PMID: 17476327; PMCID: PMC1852332.
    52. Barbour A, Dai Q, Restrepo BI, Stoenner HG, Frank SA. Pathogen escape from host immunity by a genome program for antigenic variation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 28; 103(48):18290-5. PMID: 17101971; PMCID: PMC1635980.
    53. Jasinskas A, Zhong J, Barbour A. Highly prevalent Coxiella sp. bacterium in the tick vector Amblyomma americanum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Jan; 73(1):334-6. PMID: 17085709; PMCID: PMC1797106.
    54. Tourand Y, Bankhead T, Wilson SL, Putteet-Driver AD, Barbour A, Byram R, Rosa PA, Chaconas G. Differential telomere processing by Borrelia telomere resolvases in vitro but not in vivo. J Bacteriol. 2006 Nov; 188(21):7378-86. PMID: 16936037; PMCID: PMC1636258.
    55. Comstedt P, Bergström S, Olsen B, Garpmo U, Marjavaara L, Mejlon H, Barbour A, Bunikis J. Migratory passerine birds as reservoirs of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jul; 12(7):1087-95. PMID: 16836825; PMCID: PMC3291064.
    56. Dai Q, Restrepo BI, Porcella SF, Raffel SJ, Schwan TG, Barbour A. Antigenic variation by Borrelia hermsii occurs through recombination between extragenic repetitive elements on linear plasmids. Mol Microbiol. 2006 Jun; 60(6):1329-43. PMID: 16796672.
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    57. Lawson CL, Yung BH, Barbour A, Zückert WR. Crystal structure of neurotropism-associated variable surface protein 1 (Vsp1) of Borrelia turicatae. J Bacteriol. 2006 Jun; 188(12):4522-30. PMID: 16740958; PMCID: PMC1482977.
    58. Frank SA, Barbour A. Within-host dynamics of antigenic variation. Infect Genet Evol. 2006 Mar; 6(2):141-6. PMID: 16461018.
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    59. Zhong J, Skouloubris S, Dai Q, Myllykallio H, Barbour A. Function and evolution of plasmid-borne genes for pyrimidine biosynthesis in Borrelia spp. J Bacteriol. 2006 Feb; 188(3):909-18. PMID: 16428394; PMCID: PMC1347342.
    60. Ornstein K, Barbour A. A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of Borrelia burgdorferi 16S rRNA for highly sensitive quantification of pathogen load in a vector. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2006; 6(1):103-12. PMID: 16584333.
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    61. Barbour A, Putteet-Driver AD, Bunikis J. Horizontally acquired genes for purine salvage in Borrelia spp. causing relapsing fever. Infect Immun. 2005 Sep; 73(9):6165-8. PMID: 16113341; PMCID: PMC1231056.
    62. Bunikis J, Barbour A. Third Borrelia species in white-footed mice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jul; 11(7):1150-1. PMID: 16032795; PMCID: PMC3371798.
    63. Jasinskas A, Barbour A. The Fc fragment mediates the uptake of immunoglobulin C from the midgut to hemolymph in the ixodid tick Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 2005 May; 42(3):359-66. PMID: 15962788.
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    64. Becker M, Bunikis J, Lade BD, Dunn JJ, Barbour A, Lawson CL. Structural investigation of Borrelia burgdorferi OspB, a bactericidal Fab target. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 29; 280(17):17363-70. PMID: 15713683.
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    65. Tsao JI, Wootton JT, Bunikis J, Luna MG, Fish D, Barbour A. An ecological approach to preventing human infection: vaccinating wild mouse reservoirs intervenes in the Lyme disease cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 28; 101(52):18159-64. PMID: 15608069; PMCID: PMC536054.
    66. Bunikis J, Tsao J, Garpmo U, Berglund J, Fish D, Barbour A. Typing of Borrelia relapsing fever group strains. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Sep; 10(9):1661-4. PMID: 15498172; PMCID: PMC3320305.
    67. Bunikis J, Garpmo U, Tsao J, Berglund J, Fish D, Barbour A. Sequence typing reveals extensive strain diversity of the Lyme borreliosis agents Borrelia burgdorferi in North America and Borrelia afzelii in Europe. Microbiology. 2004 Jun; 150(Pt 6):1741-55. PMID: 15184561.
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    68. Putteet-Driver AD, Zhong J, Barbour A. Transgenic expression of RecA of the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia hermsii in Escherichia coli revealed differences in DNA repair and recombination phenotypes. J Bacteriol. 2004 Apr; 186(8):2266-74. PMID: 15060027; PMCID: PMC412116.
    69. Bunikis J, Tsao J, Luke CJ, Luna MG, Fish D, Barbour A. Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a natural population of Peromyscus Leucopus mice: a longitudinal study in an area where Lyme Borreliosis is highly endemic. J Infect Dis. 2004 Apr 15; 189(8):1515-23. PMID: 15073690.
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    70. Zückert WR, Lloyd JE, Stewart PE, Rosa PA, Barbour A. Cross-species surface display of functional spirochetal lipoproteins by recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 2004 Mar; 72(3):1463-9. PMID: 14977951; PMCID: PMC356051.
    71. Zhong J, Barbour A. Cross-species hybridization of a Borrelia burgdorferi DNA array reveals infection- and culture-associated genes of the unsequenced genome of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii. Mol Microbiol. 2004 Feb; 51(3):729-48. PMID: 14731275.
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    72. Ojaimi C, Brooks C, Casjens S, Rosa P, Elias A, Barbour A, Jasinskas A, Benach J, Katona L, Radolf J, Caimano M, Skare J, Swingle K, Akins D, Schwartz I. Profiling of temperature-induced changes in Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression by using whole genome arrays. Infect Immun. 2003 Apr; 71(4):1689-705. PMID: 12654782; PMCID: PMC152086.
    73. Pal S, Luke CJ, Barbour A, Peterson EM, de la Maza LM. Immunization with the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein, using the outer surface protein A of Borrelia burgdorferi as an adjuvant, can induce protection against a chlamydial genital challenge. Vaccine. 2003 Mar 28; 21(13-14):1455-65. PMID: 12615442.
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    74. Bunikis J, Barbour A. Laboratory testing for suspected Lyme disease. Med Clin North Am. 2002 Mar; 86(2):311-40. PMID: 11982304.
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    75. Thomas NJ, Bunikis J, Barbour A, Wolcott MJ. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in a northern spotted owl. J Wildl Dis. 2002 Jan; 38(1):187-93. PMID: 11838214.
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    76. Ojaimi C, Brooks C, Akins D, Casjens S, Rosa P, Elias A, Barbour A, Jasinskas A, Benach J, Katonah L, Radolf J, Caimano M, Skare J, Swingle K, Sims S, Schwartz I. Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression profiling with membrane-based arrays. Methods Enzymol. 2002; 358:165-77. PMID: 12474386.
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    77. Ornstein K, Berglund J, Bergström S, Norrby R, Barbour A. Three major Lyme Borrelia genospecies (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii) identified by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neuroborreliosis in Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002; 34(5):341-6. PMID: 12069016.
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    78. Barbour A, Bundoc V. In vitro and in vivo neutralization of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii with serotype-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies. Infect Immun. 2001 Feb; 69(2):1009-15. PMID: 11159997; PMCID: PMC97981.
    79. Barbour A, Carter CJ, Sohaskey CD. Surface protein variation by expression site switching in the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii. Infect Immun. 2000 Dec; 68(12):7114-21. PMID: 11083837; PMCID: PMC97822.
    80. Barbour A, Restrepo BI. Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000 Sep-Oct; 6(5):449-57. PMID: 10998374; PMCID: PMC2627965.
    81. Barbour A, Carter CJ, Bundoc V, Hinnebusch J. The nucleotide sequence of a linear plasmid of Borrelia burgdorferi reveals similarities to those of circular plasmids of other prokaryotes. J Bacteriol. 1996 Nov; 178(22):6635-9. PMID: 8932323; PMCID: PMC178553.
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