Timothy Scott Kern

Title(s)Professor, Ophthalmology
Address1001 Health Sciences Road
Irvine CA 92697-3950
Phone(949) 824-5324
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    Collapse Research 
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    BLR&D Research Career Scientist Application
    NIH IK6BX003604Oct 1, 2016 - Sep 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Novel therapies to inhibit Diabetic Retinopathy
    NIH R24EY024864Apr 1, 2015 - Mar 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Acetylation and diabetic retinopathy
    NIH I01BX002117Apr 1, 2014 - Mar 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Photoreceptors in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy
    NIH R01EY022938Sep 1, 2013 - May 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Global Characterization of Lysine Acetylation in Diabetic Retina
    NIH R21EY021595Jan 1, 2012 - Dec 31, 2013
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS
    NIH P01DK057733Sep 1, 2000 - Aug 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Study of diabetic retinopathy
    NIH R01EY000300Dec 1, 1977 - Feb 28, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Study of diabetic retinopathy
    NIH R56EY000300Dec 1, 1977 - Sep 29, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Regulation of adrenergic, serotonin and dopamine receptors to inhibit diabetic retinopathy: monotherapies versus combination therapies. Mol Pharmacol. 2021 Aug 15. Kern TS, Du Y, Tang J, Lee CA, Liu H, Dreffs A, Leinonen H, Antonetti DA, Palczewski K. PMID: 34393108.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Photoreceptor Cell Calcium Dysregulation and Calpain Activation Promote Pathogenic Photoreceptor Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Prodromal Diabetic Retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2021 Jun 29. Saadane A, Du Y, Thoreson WB, Miyagi M, Lessieur EM, Kiser J, Wen X, Berkowitz BA, Kern TS. PMID: 34214506.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Sildenafil-evoked photoreceptor oxidative stress in vivo is unrelated to impaired visual performance in mice. PLoS One. 2021; 16(3):e0245161. Berkowitz BA, Podolsky RH, Lins Childers K, Saadane A, Kern TS, Roberts R, Olds H, Joy J, Richards C, Rosales T, Schneider M, Schilling B, Orchanian A, Graffice E, Sinan K, Qian H, Harp L. PMID: 33661941.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    4. Fatty acid oxidation and photoreceptor metabolic needs. J Lipid Res. 2021 Feb 06; 62:100035. Fu Z, Kern TS, Hellström A, Smith LEH. PMID: 32094231.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    
    5. Formulation and efficacy of ECO/pRHO-ABCA4-SV40 nanoparticles for nonviral gene therapy of Stargardt disease in a mouse model. J Control Release. 2021 02 10; 330:329-340. Sun D, Sun W, Gao SQ, Wei C, Naderi A, Schilb AL, Scheidt J, Lee S, Kern TS, Palczewski K, Lu ZR. PMID: 33358976.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    6. Photoreceptor cells and RPE contribute to the development of diabetic retinopathy. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2021 Jul; 83:100919. Tonade D, Kern TS. PMID: 33188897.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    
    7. Successful induction of diabetes in mice demonstrates no gender difference in development of early diabetic retinopathy. PLoS One. 2020; 15(9):e0238727. Saadane A, Lessieur EM, Du Y, Liu H, Kern TS. PMID: 32941450.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. All-trans-Retinaldehyde Contributes to Retinal Vascular Permeability in Ischemia Reperfusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2020 06 03; 61(6):8. Dreffs A, Lin CM, Liu X, Shanmugam S, Abcouwer SF, Kern TS, Antonetti DA. PMID: 32492112.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    9. Stable Retinoid Analogue Targeted Dual pH-Sensitive Smart Lipid ECO/pDNA Nanoparticles for Specific Gene Delivery in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium. ACS Appl Bio Mater. 2020 May 18; 3(5):3078-3086. Sun D, Schur RM, Sears AE, Gao SQ, Sun W, Naderi A, Kern T, Palczewski K, Lu ZR. PMID: 34327311.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    10. Neutrophil elastase contributes to the pathological vascular permeability characteristic of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetologia. 2019 12; 62(12):2365-2374. Liu H, Lessieur EM, Saadane A, Lindstrom SI, Taylor PR, Kern TS. PMID: 31612267.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    11. Non-viral Gene Therapy for Stargardt Disease with ECO/pRHO-ABCA4 Self-Assembled Nanoparticles. Mol Ther. 2020 01 08; 28(1):293-303. Sun D, Schur RM, Sears AE, Gao SQ, Vaidya A, Sun W, Maeda A, Kern T, Palczewski K, Lu ZR. PMID: 31611143.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    12. Dyslipidemia in retinal metabolic disorders. EMBO Mol Med. 2019 10; 11(10):e10473. Fu Z, Chen CT, Cagnone G, Heckel E, Sun Y, Cakir B, Tomita Y, Huang S, Li Q, Britton W, Cho SS, Kern TS, Hellström A, Joyal JS, Smith LE. PMID: 31486227.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    13. Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy: Contribution and Limitations of Laboratory Research. Ophthalmic Res. 2019; 62(4):196-202. Kern TS, Antonetti DA, Smith LEH. PMID: 31362288.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    14. Retinol binding protein 3 is increased in the retina of patients with diabetes resistant to diabetic retinopathy. Sci Transl Med. 2019 07 03; 11(499). Yokomizo H, Maeda Y, Park K, Clermont AC, Hernandez SL, Fickweiler W, Li Q, Wang CH, Paniagua SM, Simao F, Ishikado A, Sun B, Wu IH, Katagiri S, Pober DM, Tinsley LJ, Avery RL, Feener EP, Kern TS, Keenan HA, Aiello LP, Sun JK, King GL. PMID: 31270273.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    15. Diabetes induces IL-17A-Act1-FADD-dependent retinal endothelial cell death and capillary degeneration. J Diabetes Complications. 2019 09; 33(9):668-674. Lindstrom SI, Sigurdardottir S, Zapadka TE, Tang J, Liu H, Taylor BE, Smith DG, Lee CA, DeAngelis J, Kern TS, Taylor PR. PMID: 31239234.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    16. Diabetes-mediated IL-17A enhances retinal inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular permeability. Cell Immunol. 2019 07; 341:103921. Sigurdardottir S, Zapadka TE, Lindstrom SI, Liu H, Taylor BE, Lee CA, Kern TS, Taylor PR. PMID: 31076079.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Transducin1, Phototransduction and the Development of Early Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2019 04 01; 60(5):1538-1546. Liu H, Tang J, Du Y, Saadane A, Samuels I, Veenstra A, Kiser JZ, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 30994864.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Noninvasive Two-Photon Microscopy Imaging of Mouse Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1834:333-343. Palczewska G, Kern TS, Palczewski K. PMID: 30324453.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    19. Two-photon imaging of the mammalian retina with ultrafast pulsing laser. JCI Insight. 2018 09 06; 3(17). Palczewska G, Stremplewski P, Suh S, Alexander N, Salom D, Dong Z, Ruminski D, Choi EH, Sears AE, Kern TS, Wojtkowski M, Palczewski K. PMID: 30185665.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    20. D-cis-Diltiazem Can Produce Oxidative Stress in Healthy Depolarized Rods In Vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 06 01; 59(7):2999-3010. Berkowitz BA, Podolsky RH, Farrell B, Lee H, Trepanier C, Berri AM, Dernay K, Graffice E, Shafie-Khorassani F, Kern TS, Roberts R. PMID: 30025125.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    21. The Absence of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Inhibits Retinal Capillary Degeneration in Diabetic Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 04 01; 59(5):2042-2053. Nahomi RB, Sampathkumar S, Myers AM, Elghazi L, Smith DG, Tang J, Lee CA, Kern TS, Nagaraj RH, Fort PE. PMID: 29677366.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    22. Photobiomodulation Inhibits Long-term Structural and Functional Lesions of Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes. 2018 02; 67(2):291-298. Cheng Y, Du Y, Liu H, Tang J, Veenstra A, Kern TS. PMID: 29167189.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    23. A Combination of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Modulators Protects Photoreceptors from Degeneration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018 02; 364(2):207-220. Orban T, Leinonen H, Getter T, Dong Z, Sun W, Gao S, Veenstra A, Heidari-Torkabadi H, Kern TS, Kiser PD, Palczewski K. PMID: 29162627.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    24. Photoreceptor cells produce inflammatory products that contribute to retinal vascular permeability in a mouse model of diabetes. Diabetologia. 2017 10; 60(10):2111-2120. Tonade D, Liu H, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 28755268.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Do photoreceptor cells cause the development of retinal vascular disease? Vision Res. 2017 10; 139:65-71. Kern TS. PMID: 28438678.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    26. Loss of CD40 attenuates experimental diabetes-induced retinal inflammation but does not protect mice from electroretinogram defects. Vis Neurosci. 2017 01; 34:E009. Samuels IS, Portillo JC, Miao Y, Kern TS, Subauste CS. PMID: 28965505.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. Mechanistic Insights into Pathological Changes in the Diabetic Retina: Implications for Targeting Diabetic Retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2017 Jan; 187(1):9-19. Roy S, Kern TS, Song B, Stuebe C. PMID: 27846381.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 58     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    28. Ligation of CD40 in Human Müller Cells Induces P2X7 Receptor-Dependent Death of Retinal Endothelial Cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 11 01; 57(14):6278-6286. Portillo JC, Lopez Corcino Y, Dubyak GR, Kern TS, Matsuyama S, Subauste CS. PMID: 27893093.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Eyes on systems pharmacology. Pharmacol Res. 2016 Dec; 114:39-41. Chen Y, Kern TS, Kiser PD, Palczewski K. PMID: 27720767.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    30. Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines as a Tool to Study Inter-Individual Differences in the Response to Glucose. PLoS One. 2016; 11(8):e0160504. Grassi MA, Rao VR, Chen S, Cao D, Gao X, Cleary PA, Huang RS, Paterson AD, Natarajan R, Rehman J, Kern TS, DCCT/EDIC Research Group . PMID: 27509144.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    31. Photoreceptor Cells Produce Inflammatory Mediators That Contribute to Endothelial Cell Death in Diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 08 01; 57(10):4264-71. Tonade D, Liu H, Kern TS. PMID: 27548900.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Photoreceptor Cells Influence Retinal Vascular Degeneration in Mouse Models of Retinal Degeneration and Diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 08 01; 57(10):4272-81. Liu H, Tang J, Du Y, Saadane A, Tonade D, Samuels I, Veenstra A, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 27548901.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. CD40 in Retinal Müller Cells Induces P2X7-Dependent Cytokine Expression in Macrophages/Microglia in Diabetic Mice and Development of Early Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes. 2017 02; 66(2):483-493. Portillo JC, Lopez Corcino Y, Miao Y, Tang J, Sheibani N, Kern TS, Dubyak GR, Subauste CS. PMID: 27474370.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Synergistically acting agonists and antagonists of G protein-coupled receptors prevent photoreceptor cell degeneration. Sci Signal. 2016 07 26; 9(438):ra74. Chen Y, Palczewska G, Masuho I, Gao S, Jin H, Dong Z, Gieser L, Brooks MJ, Kiser PD, Kern TS, Martemyanov KA, Swaroop A, Palczewski K. PMID: 27460988.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. Image registration and averaging of low laser power two-photon fluorescence images of mouse retina. Biomed Opt Express. 2016 Jul 01; 7(7):2671-91. Alexander NS, Palczewska G, Stremplewski P, Wojtkowski M, Kern TS, Palczewski K. PMID: 27446697.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    36. Systemic Retinaldehyde Treatment Corrects Retinal Oxidative Stress, Rod Dysfunction, and Impaired Visual Performance in Diabetic Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Oct; 56(11):6294-303. Berkowitz BA, Kern TS, Bissig D, Patel P, Bhatia A, Kefalov VJ, Roberts R. PMID: 26431483.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Photobiomodulation Mitigates Diabetes-Induced Retinopathy by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms: Evidence from Intervention Studies in Pigmented Mice. PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0139003. Saliba A, Du Y, Liu H, Patel S, Roberts R, Berkowitz BA, Kern TS. PMID: 26426815.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. Diabetic Retinopathy: Retina-Specific Methods for Maintenance of Diabetic Rodents and Evaluation of Vascular Histopathology and Molecular Abnormalities. Curr Protoc Mouse Biol. 2015 Sep 01; 5(3):247-270. Veenstra A, Liu H, Lee CA, Du Y, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 26331759.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    39. Retinylamine Benefits Early Diabetic Retinopathy in Mice. J Biol Chem. 2015 Aug 28; 290(35):21568-79. Liu H, Tang J, Du Y, Lee CA, Golczak M, Muthusamy A, Antonetti DA, Veenstra AA, Amengual J, von Lintig J, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 26139608.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability. FASEB J. 2015 May; 29(5):2194-204. Du Y, Cramer M, Lee CA, Tang J, Muthusamy A, Antonetti DA, Jin H, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 25667222.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Metanx and early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jan 08; 56(1):647-53. Liu H, Tang J, Lee CA, Kern TS. PMID: 25574044.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    42. Photoreceptors in diabetic retinopathy. J Diabetes Investig. 2015 Jul; 6(4):371-80. Kern TS, Berkowitz BA. PMID: 26221514.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    
    43. Proinflammatory responses induced by CD40 in retinal endothelial and Müller cells are inhibited by blocking CD40-Traf2,3 or CD40-Traf6 signaling. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Dec 04; 55(12):8590-7. Portillo JA, Schwartz I, Zarini S, Bapputty R, Kern TS, Gubitosi-Klug RA, Murphy RC, Subauste MC, Subauste CS. PMID: 25477319.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. CD40 promotes the development of early diabetic retinopathy in mice. Diabetologia. 2014 Oct; 57(10):2222-31. Portillo JA, Greene JA, Okenka G, Miao Y, Sheibani N, Kern TS, Subauste CS. PMID: 25015056.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. Retinal and nonocular abnormalities in Cyp27a1(-/-)Cyp46a1(-/-) mice with dysfunctional metabolism of cholesterol. Am J Pathol. 2014 Sep; 184(9):2403-19. Saadane A, Mast N, Charvet CD, Omarova S, Zheng W, Huang SS, Kern TS, Peachey NS, Pikuleva IA. PMID: 25065682.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    46. Diabetes-induced impairment in visual function in mice: contributions of p38 MAPK, rage, leukocytes, and aldose reductase. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 May 02; 55(5):2904-10. Lee CA, Li G, Patel MD, Petrash JM, Benetz BA, Veenstra A, Amengual J, von Lintig J, Burant CJ, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 23920367.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Regenerative therapeutic potential of adipose stromal cells in early stage diabetic retinopathy. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84671. Rajashekhar G, Ramadan A, Abburi C, Callaghan B, Traktuev DO, Evans-Molina C, Maturi R, Harris A, Kern TS, March KL. PMID: 24416262.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 40     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    48. NRF2 plays a protective role in diabetic retinopathy in mice. Diabetologia. 2014 Jan; 57(1):204-13. Xu Z, Wei Y, Gong J, Cho H, Park JK, Sung ER, Huang H, Wu L, Eberhart C, Handa JT, Du Y, Kern TS, Thimmulappa R, Barber AJ, Biswal S, Duh EJ. PMID: 24186494.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 57     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    49. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e78405. Veenstra AA, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 24205223.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    50. Leukocytes from diabetic patients kill retinal endothelial cells: effects of berberine. Mol Vis. 2013; 19:2092-105. Tian P, Ge H, Liu H, Kern TS, Du L, Guan L, Su S, Liu P. PMID: 24146542.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsCTClinical Trials
    51. Photoreceptor cells are major contributors to diabetes-induced oxidative stress and local inflammation in the retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Oct 08; 110(41):16586-91. Du Y, Veenstra A, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 24067647.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 134     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. IGFBP-3 and TNF-α regulate retinal endothelial cell apoptosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Aug 09; 54(8):5376-84. Zhang Q, Jiang Y, Miller MJ, Peng B, Liu L, Soderland C, Tang J, Kern TS, Pintar J, Steinle JJ. PMID: 23868984.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    53. β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice exhibit A diabetic retinopathy phenotype. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e70555. Jiang Y, Zhang Q, Liu L, Tang J, Kern TS, Steinle JJ. PMID: 23894672.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    54. MyD88-dependent pathways in leukocytes affect the retina in diabetes. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68871. Tang J, Allen Lee C, Du Y, Sun Y, Pearlman E, Sheibani N, Kern TS. PMID: 23874797.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in diabetic dogs and mice: relationship to glycemic control and retinal capillary degeneration. Mol Vis. 2013; 19:1413-21. Howell SJ, Mekhail MN, Azem R, Ward NL, Kern TS. PMID: 23825921.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Low-intensity far-red light inhibits early lesions that contribute to diabetic retinopathy: in vivo and in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May 01; 54(5):3681-90. Tang J, Du Y, Lee CA, Talahalli R, Eells JT, Kern TS. PMID: 23557732.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    57. Deletion of aldose reductase from mice inhibits diabetes-induced retinal capillary degeneration and superoxide generation. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e62081. Tang J, Du Y, Petrash JM, Sheibani N, Kern TS. PMID: 23614016.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    58. Exclusion of aldose reductase as a mediator of ERG deficits in a mouse model of diabetic eye disease. Vis Neurosci. 2012 Nov; 29(6):267-74. Samuels IS, Lee CA, Petrash JM, Peachey NS, Kern TS. PMID: 23101909.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    59. Leukocytes regulate retinal capillary degeneration in the diabetic mouse via generation of leukotrienes. J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Jan; 93(1):135-43. Talahalli R, Zarini S, Tang J, Li G, Murphy R, Kern TS, Gubitosi-Klug RA. PMID: 23108096.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    60. Marrow-derived cells regulate the development of early diabetic retinopathy and tactile allodynia in mice. Diabetes. 2012 Dec; 61(12):3294-303. Li G, Veenstra AA, Talahalli RR, Wang X, Gubitosi-Klug RA, Sheibani N, Kern TS. PMID: 22923475.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    61. Antibody-mediated retinal pericyte injury: implications for diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Aug 13; 53(9):5520-6. Li Y, Smith D, Li Q, Sheibani N, Huang S, Kern T, Nagaraj RH, Lin F. PMID: 22786897.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    62. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids preserve retinal function in type 2 diabetic mice. Nutr Diabetes. 2012 Jul 23; 2:e36. Sapieha P, Chen J, Stahl A, Seaward MR, Favazza TL, Juan AM, Hatton CJ, Joyal JS, Krah NM, Dennison RJ, Tang J, Kern TS, Akula JD, Smith LE. PMID: 23448719.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    
    63. Update on animal models of diabetic retinopathy: from molecular approaches to mice and higher mammals. Dis Model Mech. 2012 Jul; 5(4):444-56. Robinson R, Barathi VA, Chaurasia SS, Wong TY, Kern TS. PMID: 22730475.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 106     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    64. Acetylation of retinal histones in diabetes increases inflammatory proteins: effects of minocycline and manipulation of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC). J Biol Chem. 2012 Jul 27; 287(31):25869-80. Kadiyala CS, Zheng L, Du Y, Yohannes E, Kao HY, Miyagi M, Kern TS. PMID: 22648458.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 40     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    65. Compound 49b prevents diabetes-induced apoptosis through increased IGFBP-3 levels. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 May 17; 53(6):3004-13. Zhang Q, Guy K, Pagadala J, Jiang Y, Walker RJ, Liu L, Soderland C, Kern TS, Ferry R, He H, Yates CR, Miller DD, Steinle JJ. PMID: 22467575.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 45     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    66. Transcriptome analysis using next generation sequencing reveals molecular signatures of diabetic retinopathy and efficacy of candidate drugs. Mol Vis. 2012; 18:1123-46. Kandpal RP, Rajasimha HK, Brooks MJ, Nellissery J, Wan J, Qian J, Kern TS, Swaroop A. PMID: 22605924.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    67. Evidence for diffuse central retinal edema in vivo in diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29619. Berkowitz BA, Bissig D, Ye Y, Valsadia P, Kern TS, Roberts R. PMID: 22253747.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    68. Beneficial effects of a novel RAGE inhibitor on early diabetic retinopathy and tactile allodynia. Mol Vis. 2011; 17:3156-65. Li G, Tang J, Du Y, Lee CA, Kern TS. PMID: 22171162.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    69. Retinal pericytes inhibit activated T cell proliferation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Nov 21; 52(12):9005-10. Tu Z, Li Y, Smith DS, Sheibani N, Huang S, Kern T, Lin F. PMID: 22003106.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 39     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    70. The unconventional role of acid sphingomyelinase in regulation of retinal microangiopathy in diabetic human and animal models. Diabetes. 2011 Sep; 60(9):2370-8. Opreanu M, Tikhonenko M, Bozack S, Lydic TA, Reid GE, McSorley KM, Sochacki A, Perez GI, Esselman WJ, Kern T, Kolesnick R, Grant MB, Busik JV. PMID: 21771974.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    71. Increased tumor necrosis factor-α, cleaved caspase 3 levels and insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation in the β₁-adrenergic receptor knockout mouse. Mol Vis. 2011; 17:1822-8. Panjala SR, Jiang Y, Kern TS, Thomas SA, Steinle JJ. PMID: 21850156.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    72. Inflammation in diabetic retinopathy. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011 Sep; 30(5):343-58. Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 21635964.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 375     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    73. Validation of structural and functional lesions of diabetic retinopathy in mice. Mol Vis. 2010 Oct 19; 16:2121-31. Kern TS, Tang J, Berkowitz BA. PMID: 21139688.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    74. PP2A contributes to endothelial death in high glucose: inhibition by benfotiamine. . 2010 Dec; 299(6):R1610-7. Du Y, Kowluru A, Kern TS. PMID: 20881100.
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    75. Comparison of three strains of diabetic rats with respect to the rate at which retinopathy and tactile allodynia develop. Mol Vis. 2010 Aug 15; 16:1629-39. Kern TS, Miller CM, Tang J, Du Y, Ball SL, Berti-Matera L. PMID: 20806092.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    76. Application of isoproterenol inhibits diabetic-like changes in the rat retina. Exp Eye Res. 2010 Aug; 91(2):171-9. Jiang Y, Walker RJ, Kern TS, Steinle JJ. PMID: 20493839.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    77. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in vascular endothelium inhibits the microvascular lesions of diabetic retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2010 May; 176(5):2550-8. Kern TS, Du Y, Miller CM, Hatala DA, Levin LA. PMID: 20363911.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    78. Effects of p38 MAPK inhibition on early stages of diabetic retinopathy and sensory nerve function. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Apr; 51(4):2158-64. Du Y, Tang J, Li G, Li G, Berti-Mattera L, Lee CA, Bartkowski D, Gale D, Monahan J, Niesman MR, Alton G, Kern TS. PMID: 20071676.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    79. Activation of PKC-delta and SHP-1 by hyperglycemia causes vascular cell apoptosis and diabetic retinopathy. Nat Med. 2009 Nov; 15(11):1298-306. Geraldes P, Hiraoka-Yamamoto J, Matsumoto M, Clermont A, Leitges M, Marette A, Aiello LP, Kern TS, King GL. PMID: 19881493.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 170     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    80. Identification of primary retinal cells and ex vivo detection of proinflammatory molecules using flow cytometry. Mol Vis. 2009 Jul 17; 15:1383-9. Portillo JA, Okenka G, Kern TS, Subauste CS. PMID: 19626134.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    81. Increased basement membrane thickness, pericyte ghosts, and loss of retinal thickness and cells in dopamine beta hydroxylase knockout mice. Exp Eye Res. 2009 Jun; 88(6):1014-9. Steinle JJ, Kern TS, Thomas SA, McFadyen-Ketchum LS, Smith CP. PMID: 19176214.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    82. Retinal ion regulation in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy: natural history and the effect of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase overexpression. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 May; 50(5):2351-8. Berkowitz BA, Gradianu M, Bissig D, Kern TS, Roberts R. PMID: 19074809.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 48     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    83. Markers of glycemic control in the mouse: comparisons of 6-h- and overnight-fasted blood glucoses to Hb A1c. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct; 295(4):E981-6. Han BG, Hao CM, Tchekneva EE, Wang YY, Lee CA, Ebrahim B, Harris RC, Kern TS, Wasserman DH, Breyer MD, Qi Z. PMID: 18664598.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    84. Retinal ganglion cells in diabetes. J Physiol. 2008 Sep 15; 586(18):4401-8. Kern TS, Barber AJ. PMID: 18565995.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 150     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    85. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) meeting summary: Advances toward measuring diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy: from the bench to the clinic and back again (April 4-5, 2007, Baltimore, Maryland). J Diabetes Complications. 2009 May-Jun; 23(3):219-23. Kern TS, Berkowitz BA, Feldman EL. PMID: 18413183.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    86. 5-Lipoxygenase, but not 12/15-lipoxygenase, contributes to degeneration of retinal capillaries in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2008 May; 57(5):1387-93. Gubitosi-Klug RA, Talahalli R, Du Y, Nadler JL, Kern TS. PMID: 18346986.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 71     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    87. Targets of tyrosine nitration in diabetic rat retina. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008 May; 7(5):864-74. Zhan X, Du Y, Crabb JS, Gu X, Kern TS, Crabb JW. PMID: 18165258.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    88. Long-term, topical insulin administration increases the severity of retinal vascular pathology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Optometry. 2007 Nov; 78(11):574-81. Koevary SB, Nussey J, Kern TS. PMID: 17976619.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    89. Captopril inhibits capillary degeneration in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Curr Eye Res. 2007 Oct; 32(10):883-9. Zhang JZ, Xi X, Gao L, Kern TS. PMID: 17963108.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    90. Oxidative damage in the retinal mitochondria of diabetic mice: possible protection by superoxide dismutase. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Aug; 48(8):3805-11. Kanwar M, Chan PS, Kern TS, Kowluru RA. PMID: 17652755.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 142     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    91. Critical role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in degeneration of retinal capillaries in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetologia. 2007 Sep; 50(9):1987-1996. Zheng L, Du Y, Miller C, Gubitosi-Klug RA, Kern TS, Ball S, Berkowitz BA. PMID: 17583794.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 111     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    92. Ischemic vascular damage can be repaired by healthy, but not diabetic, endothelial progenitor cells. Diabetes. 2007 Apr; 56(4):960-7. Caballero S, Sengupta N, Afzal A, Chang KH, Li Calzi S, Guberski DL, Kern TS, Grant MB. PMID: 17395742.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 129     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    93. Glutaredoxin regulates nuclear factor kappa-B and intercellular adhesion molecule in Müller cells: model of diabetic retinopathy. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 27; 282(17):12467-74. Shelton MD, Kern TS, Mieyal JJ. PMID: 17324929.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 49     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    94. Topical administration of nepafenac inhibits diabetes-induced retinal microvascular disease and underlying abnormalities of retinal metabolism and physiology. Diabetes. 2007 Feb; 56(2):373-9. Kern TS, Miller CM, Du Y, Zheng L, Mohr S, Ball SL, Kim M, Jamison JA, Bingaman DP. PMID: 17259381.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 61     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    95. Salicylate-based anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit the early lesion of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2007 Feb; 56(2):337-45. Zheng L, Howell SJ, Hatala DA, Huang K, Kern TS. PMID: 17259377.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 78     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    96. Contributions of inflammatory processes to the development of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Exp Diabetes Res. 2007; 2007:95103. Kern TS. PMID: 18274606.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 258     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    97. Retinal ischemia and reperfusion causes capillary degeneration: similarities to diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jan; 48(1):361-7. Zheng L, Gong B, Hatala DA, Kern TS. PMID: 17197555.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 108     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    98. Reduction of diabetes-induced oxidative stress, fibrotic cytokine expression, and renal dysfunction in protein kinase Cbeta-null mice. Diabetes. 2006 Nov; 55(11):3112-20. Ohshiro Y, Ma RC, Yasuda Y, Hiraoka-Yamamoto J, Clermont AC, Isshiki K, Yagi K, Arikawa E, Kern TS, King GL. PMID: 17065350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 68     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    99. Vascular damage in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy: relation to neuronal and glial changes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Nov; 46(11):4281-7. Feit-Leichman RA, Kinouchi R, Takeda M, Fan Z, Mohr S, Kern TS, Chen DF. PMID: 16249509.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 107     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    100. The Ins2Akita mouse as a model of early retinal complications in diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jun; 46(6):2210-8. Barber AJ, Antonetti DA, Kern TS, Reiter CE, Soans RS, Krady JK, Levison SW, Gardner TW, Bronson SK. PMID: 15914643.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 209     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    101. Paradoxical effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and antioxidant vitamins in diabetic rats: improved retinopathy and renal mitochondrial defects but deterioration of collagen matrix glycoxidation and cross-linking. Diabetes. 2005 Feb; 54(2):517-26. Mustata GT, Rosca M, Biemel KM, Reihl O, Smith MA, Viswanathan A, Strauch C, Du Y, Tang J, Kern TS, Lederer MO, Brownlee M, Weiss MF, Monnier VM. PMID: 15677510.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    102. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy via regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB. Diabetes. 2004 Nov; 53(11):2960-7. Zheng L, Szabó C, Kern TS. PMID: 15504977.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 103     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    103. Interaction between NO and COX pathways in retinal cells exposed to elevated glucose and retina of diabetic rats. . 2004 Oct; 287(4):R735-41. Du Y, Sarthy VP, Kern TS. PMID: 15371279.
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    104. A central role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. FASEB J. 2004 Sep; 18(12):1450-2. Joussen AM, Poulaki V, Le ML, Koizumi K, Esser C, Janicki H, Schraermeyer U, Kociok N, Fauser S, Kirchhof B, Kern TS, Adamis AP. PMID: 15231732.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 426     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    105. Comparison of glucose influx and blood flow in retina and brain of diabetic rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004 Apr; 24(4):449-57. Puchowicz MA, Xu K, Magness D, Miller C, Lust WD, Kern TS, LaManna JC. PMID: 15087714.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    106. Regulation of the early subnormal retinal oxygenation response in experimental diabetes by inducible nitric oxide synthase. Diabetes. 2004 Jan; 53(1):173-8. Berkowitz BA, Luan H, Gupta RR, Pacheco D, Seidner A, Roberts R, Liggett J, Knoerzer DL, Connor JR, Du Y, Kern TS, Ito Y. PMID: 14693712.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    107. Hyperglycemia increases mitochondrial superoxide in retina and retinal cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003 Dec 01; 35(11):1491-9. Du Y, Miller CM, Kern TS. PMID: 14642397.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 133     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    108. Captopril inhibits glucose accumulation in retinal cells in diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Sep; 44(9):4001-5. Zhang JZ, Gao L, Widness M, Xi X, Kern TS. PMID: 12939321.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    109. A comprehensive analysis of the expression of crystallins in mouse retina. Mol Vis. 2003 Aug 28; 9:410-9. Xi J, Farjo R, Yoshida S, Kern TS, Swaroop A, Andley UP. PMID: 12949468.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 61     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    110. Non-uniform distribution of lesions and biochemical abnormalities within the retina of diabetic humans. Curr Eye Res. 2003 Jul; 27(1):7-13. Tang J, Mohr S, Du YD, Kern TS. PMID: 12868004.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    111. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB induced by diabetes and high glucose regulates a proapoptotic program in retinal pericytes. Diabetes. 2002 Jul; 51(7):2241-8. Romeo G, Liu WH, Asnaghi V, Kern TS, Lorenzi M. PMID: 12086956.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 130     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    112. Caspase activation in retinas of diabetic and galactosemic mice and diabetic patients. Diabetes. 2002 Apr; 51(4):1172-9. Mohr S, Xi X, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 11916941.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 63     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    113. Diabetes-induced nitrative stress in the retina, and correction by aminoguanidine. J Neurochem. 2002 Mar; 80(5):771-9. Du Y, Smith MA, Miller CM, Kern TS. PMID: 11948240.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 86     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    114. Correction of early subnormal superior hemiretinal DeltaPO(2) predicts therapeutic efficacy in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Nov; 42(12):2964-9. Berkowitz BA, Ito Y, Kern TS, McDonald C, Hawkins R. PMID: 11687543.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    115. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes and experimental galactosemia. VII. Effect of long-term administration of antioxidants on the development of retinopathy. Diabetes. 2001 Aug; 50(8):1938-42. Kowluru RA, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 11473058.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 144     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    116. Pharmacological inhibition of diabetic retinopathy: aminoguanidine and aspirin. Diabetes. 2001 Jul; 50(7):1636-42. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 11423486.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 80     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    117. Retinal glutamate in diabetes and effect of antioxidants. Neurochem Int. 2001 Apr; 38(5):385-90. Kowluru RA, Engerman RL, Case GL, Kern TS. PMID: 11222918.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 59     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    118. Response of capillary cell death to aminoguanidine predicts the development of retinopathy: comparison of diabetes and galactosemia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Nov; 41(12):3972-8. Kern TS, Tang J, Mizutani M, Kowluru RA, Nagaraj RH, Romeo G, Podesta F, Lorenzi M. PMID: 11053301.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 109     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    119. Retina accumulates more glucose than does the embryologically similar cerebral cortex in diabetic rats. Diabetologia. 2000 Nov; 43(11):1417-23. Tang J, Zhu XW, Lust WD, Kern TS. PMID: 11126412.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    120. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia VIII. Prevention by aminoguanidine. Curr Eye Res. 2000 Oct; 21(4):814-9. Kowluru RA, Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 11120572.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    121. Diabetes downregulates GLUT1 expression in the retina and its microvessels but not in the cerebral cortex or its microvessels. Diabetes. 2000 Jun; 49(6):1016-21. Badr GA, Tang J, Ismail-Beigi F, Kern TS. PMID: 10866055.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    122. Subnormal retinal oxygenation response precedes diabetic-like retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Aug; 40(9):2100-5. Berkowitz BA, Kowluru RA, Frank RN, Kern TS, Hohman TC, Prakash M. PMID: 10440266.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    123. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia. VI. Comparison of retinal and cerebral cortex metabolism, and effects of antioxidant therapy. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Feb; 26(3-4):371-8. Kowluru RA, Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 9895229.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    124. Glut1 and glut3 expression, but not capillary density, is increased by cobalt chloride in rat cerebrum and retina. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999 Jan 22; 64(1):24-33. Badr GA, Zhang JZ, Tang J, Kern TS, Ismail-Beigi F. PMID: 9889305.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    125. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia. IV. Antioxidant defense system. Free Radic Biol Med. 1997; 22(4):587-92. Kowluru RA, Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 9013121.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    126. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia. III. Effects of antioxidants. Diabetes. 1996 Sep; 45(9):1233-7. Kowluru RA, Kern TS, Engerman RL, Armstrong D. PMID: 8772728.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    127. A mouse model of diabetic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Aug; 114(8):986-90. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 8694735.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    128. Accelerated death of retinal microvascular cells in human and experimental diabetic retinopathy. J Clin Invest. 1996 Jun 15; 97(12):2883-90. Mizutani M, Kern TS, Lorenzi M. PMID: 8675702.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 234     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    129. Amelioration of vascular dysfunctions in diabetic rats by an oral PKC beta inhibitor. Science. 1996 May 03; 272(5262):728-31. Ishii H, Jirousek MR, Koya D, Takagi C, Xia P, Clermont A, Bursell SE, Kern TS, Ballas LM, Heath WF, Stramm LE, Feener EP, King GL. PMID: 8614835.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 171     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    130. Capillary lesions develop in retina rather than cerebral cortex in diabetes and experimental galactosemia. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Mar; 114(3):306-10. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 8600891.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    131. Retinopathy in animal models of diabetes. Diabetes Metab Rev. 1995 Jul; 11(2):109-20. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 7555563.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 56     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    132. Vascular lesions in diabetes are distributed non-uniformly within the retina. Exp Eye Res. 1995 May; 60(5):545-9. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 7615020.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    133. Retinopathy in galactosemic dogs continues to progress after cessation of galactosemia. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 Mar; 113(3):355-8. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 7887850.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    134. Galactose-induced retinal microangiopathy in rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995 Feb; 36(2):490-6. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 7843917.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    135. Comparison of retinal lesions in alloxan-diabetic rats and galactose-fed rats. Curr Eye Res. 1994 Dec; 13(12):863-7. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 7720392.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    136. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or galactosemia. II. Comparison of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in retina and cerebral cortex, and effects of antioxidant therapy. Curr Eye Res. 1994 Dec; 13(12):891-6. Kowluru R, Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 7720397.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    137. Characterization of the mechanism for the chronic activation of diacylglycerol-protein kinase C pathway in diabetes and hypergalactosemia. Diabetes. 1994 Sep; 43(9):1122-9. Xia P, Inoguchi T, Kern TS, Engerman RL, Oates PJ, King GL. PMID: 8070612.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 77     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    138. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or galactosemia: ATPases and glutathione. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Jun; 35(7):2962-7. Kern TS, Kowluru RA, Engerman RL. PMID: 8206713.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    139. Capillary basement membrane in retina, kidney, and muscle of diabetic dogs and galactosemic dogs and its response to 5 years aldose reductase inhibition. J Diabetes Complications. 1993 Oct-Dec; 7(4):241-5. Engerman RL, Kern TS, Garment MB. PMID: 8219367.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    140. Retinal polyol and myo-inositol in galactosemic dogs given an aldose-reductase inhibitor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991 Dec; 32(13):3175-7. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 1748548.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    141. Progression of incipient diabetic retinopathy during good glycemic control. Diabetes. 1987 Jul; 36(7):808-12. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 3556280.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 139     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    142. Is diabetic retinopathy preventable? Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1987; 27(4):225-9. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 3319932.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    143. Hyperglycemia as a cause of diabetic retinopathy. Metabolism. 1986 Apr; 35(4 Suppl 1):20-3. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 3083205.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    144. Microvascular metabolism in diabetes. Metabolism. 1986 Apr; 35(4 Suppl 1):24-7. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 3083206.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    145. Diabetic retinopathy: is it a consequence of hyperglycaemia? Diabet Med. 1985 May; 2(3):200-3. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 2952421.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    146. Hexitol production by canine retinal microvessels. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1985 Mar; 26(3):382-4. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 3972519.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    147. Experimental galactosemia produces diabetic-like retinopathy. Diabetes. 1984 Jan; 33(1):97-100. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 6360771.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 55     Fields:    Translation:Animals
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