Timothy Scott Kern

Title(s)Professor, Ophthalmology
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address1001 Health Sciences Road
Irvine CA 92697-3950
Phone(949) 824-5324
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Neutrophil elastase and Gasdermin D in diabetic retinopathy
    NIH R01EY033002Sep 30, 2021 - Aug 31, 2026
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BLR&D Research Career Scientist Application
    NIH IK6BX003604Oct 1, 2016 - Sep 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Novel therapies to inhibit Diabetic Retinopathy
    NIH R24EY024864Apr 1, 2015 - Mar 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Acetylation and diabetic retinopathy
    NIH I01BX002117Apr 1, 2014 - Mar 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Photoreceptors in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy
    NIH R01EY022938Sep 1, 2013 - May 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Global Characterization of Lysine Acetylation in Diabetic Retina
    NIH R21EY021595Jan 1, 2012 - Dec 31, 2013
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS
    NIH P01DK057733Sep 1, 2000 - Aug 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Study of diabetic retinopathy
    NIH R01EY000300Dec 1, 1977 - Feb 28, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Study of diabetic retinopathy
    NIH R56EY000300Dec 1, 1977 - Sep 29, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Critical Role of CD55 in Controlling Wound Healing. J Immunol. 2024 Feb 19. Kang L, Kohen M, McCarthy I, Hammelef E, Kim HS, Bapputty R, Gubitosi-Klug R, Orge FH, Kern T, Medof ME. PMID: 38372645.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    2. Mechanical Regulation of Retinal Vascular Inflammation and Degeneration in Diabetes. Diabetes. 2024 Feb 01; 73(2):280-291. Chandrakumar S, Santiago Tierno I, Agarwal M, Lessieur EM, Du Y, Tang J, Kiser J, Yang X, Rodriguez A, Kern TS, Ghosh K. PMID: 37986627; PMCID: PMC10796303.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    3. Subendothelial Matrix Stiffening by Lysyl Oxidase Enhances RAGE-Mediated Retinal Endothelial Activation in Diabetes. Diabetes. 2023 07 01; 72(7):973-985. Chandrakumar S, Santiago Tierno I, Agarwal M, Matisioudis N, Kern TS, Ghosh K. PMID: 37058096; PMCID: PMC10281239.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    4. Stress resilience-enhancing drugs preserve tissue structure and function in degenerating retina via phosphodiesterase inhibition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 05 09; 120(19):e2221045120. Luu JC, Saadane A, Leinonen H, Choi EH, Gao F, Lewandowski D, Halabi M, Sander CL, Wu A, Wang JM, Singh R, Gao S, Lessieur EM, Dong Z, Palczewska G, Mullins RF, Peachey NS, Kiser PD, Tabaka M, Kern TS, Palczewski K. PMID: 37126699; PMCID: PMC10175720.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. Diabetic rats with high levels of endogenous dopamine do not show retinal vascular pathology. Front Neurosci. 2023; 17:1125784. Allen RS, Khayat CT, Feola AJ, Win AS, Grubman AR, Chesler KC, He L, Dixon JA, Kern TS, Iuvone PM, Thule PM, Pardue MT. PMID: 37034167; PMCID: PMC10073440.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2  
    6. CCR2-positive monocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of early diabetic retinopathy in mice. Diabetologia. 2023 03; 66(3):590-602. Saadane A, Veenstra AA, Minns MS, Tang J, Du Y, Abubakr Elghazali F, Lessieur EM, Pearlman E, Kern TS. PMID: 36698021; PMCID: PMC9892100.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    7. ICAM-1 on the luminal surface of endothelial cells is induced to a greater extent in mouse retina than in other tissues in diabetes. Diabetologia. 2022 10; 65(10):1734-1744. Lessieur EM, Liu H, Saadane A, Du Y, Kiser J, Kern TS. PMID: 35852587; PMCID: PMC9481679.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. Nanomedicine platform for targeting activated neutrophils and neutrophil-platelet complexes using an α1-antitrypsin-derived peptide motif. Nat Nanotechnol. 2022 09; 17(9):1004-1014. Cruz MA, Bohinc D, Andraska EA, Alvikas J, Raghunathan S, Masters NA, van Kleef ND, Bane KL, Hart K, Medrow K, Sun M, Liu H, Haldeman S, Banerjee A, Lessieur EM, Hageman K, Gandhi A, de la Fuente M, Nieman MT, Kern TS, Maas C, de Maat S, Neeves KB, Neal MD, Sen Gupta A, Stavrou EX. PMID: 35851383; PMCID: PMC9909445.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. Neutrophil-Derived Proteases Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Early Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2021 10 04; 62(13):7. Lessieur EM, Liu H, Saadane A, Du Y, Tang J, Kiser J, Kern TS. PMID: 34643662; PMCID: PMC8525836.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. Regulation of Adrenergic, Serotonin, and Dopamine Receptors to Inhibit Diabetic Retinopathy: Monotherapies versus Combination Therapies. Mol Pharmacol. 2021 11; 100(5):470-479. Kern TS, Du Y, Tang J, Lee CA, Liu H, Dreffs A, Leinonen H, Antonetti DA, Palczewski K. PMID: 34393108; PMCID: PMC9175131.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    11. Negative regulation of FOXP3 expression by c-Rel O-GlcNAcylation. Glycobiology. 2021 08 07; 31(7):812-826. de Jesus TJ, Tomalka JA, Centore JT, Staback Rodriguez FD, Agarwal RA, Liu AR, Kern TS, Ramakrishnan P. PMID: 33442719; PMCID: PMC8351495.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Photoreceptor Cell Calcium Dysregulation and Calpain Activation Promote Pathogenic Photoreceptor Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Prodromal Diabetic Retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2021 10; 191(10):1805-1821. Saadane A, Du Y, Thoreson WB, Miyagi M, Lessieur EM, Kiser J, Wen X, Berkowitz BA, Kern TS. PMID: 34214506; PMCID: PMC8579242.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    13. Sildenafil-evoked photoreceptor oxidative stress in vivo is unrelated to impaired visual performance in mice. PLoS One. 2021; 16(3):e0245161. Berkowitz BA, Podolsky RH, Lins Childers K, Saadane A, Kern TS, Roberts R, Olds H, Joy J, Richards C, Rosales T, Schneider M, Schilling B, Orchanian A, Graffice E, Sinan K, Qian H, Harp L. PMID: 33661941; PMCID: PMC7932139.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. A cell-penetrating CD40-TRAF2,3 blocking peptide diminishes inflammation and neuronal loss after ischemia/reperfusion. FASEB J. 2021 03; 35(3):e21412. Portillo JC, Yu JS, Hansen S, Kern TS, Subauste MC, Subauste CS. PMID: 33675257; PMCID: PMC8101361.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    15. Fatty acid oxidation and photoreceptor metabolic needs. J Lipid Res. 2021; 62:100035. Fu Z, Kern TS, Hellström A, Smith LEH. PMID: 32094231; PMCID: PMC7905050.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    16. Formulation and efficacy of ECO/pRHO-ABCA4-SV40 nanoparticles for nonviral gene therapy of Stargardt disease in a mouse model. J Control Release. 2021 02 10; 330:329-340. Sun D, Sun W, Gao SQ, Wei C, Naderi A, Schilb AL, Scheidt J, Lee S, Kern TS, Palczewski K, Lu ZR. PMID: 33358976; PMCID: PMC9066847.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Photoreceptor cells and RPE contribute to the development of diabetic retinopathy. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2021 07; 83:100919. Tonade D, Kern TS. PMID: 33188897; PMCID: PMC8113320.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 55     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    18. Successful induction of diabetes in mice demonstrates no gender difference in development of early diabetic retinopathy. PLoS One. 2020; 15(9):e0238727. Saadane A, Lessieur EM, Du Y, Liu H, Kern TS. PMID: 32941450; PMCID: PMC7498040.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    19. All-trans-Retinaldehyde Contributes to Retinal Vascular Permeability in Ischemia Reperfusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2020 06 03; 61(6):8. Dreffs A, Lin CM, Liu X, Shanmugam S, Abcouwer SF, Kern TS, Antonetti DA. PMID: 32492112; PMCID: PMC7415894.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    20. Stable Retinoid Analogue Targeted Dual pH-Sensitive Smart Lipid ECO/pDNA Nanoparticles for Specific Gene Delivery in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium. ACS Appl Bio Mater. 2020 May 18; 3(5):3078-3086. Sun D, Schur RM, Sears AE, Gao SQ, Sun W, Naderi A, Kern T, Palczewski K, Lu ZR. PMID: 34327311; PMCID: PMC8317636.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    
    21. Neutrophil elastase contributes to the pathological vascular permeability characteristic of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetologia. 2019 12; 62(12):2365-2374. Liu H, Lessieur EM, Saadane A, Lindstrom SI, Taylor PR, Kern TS. PMID: 31612267; PMCID: PMC6866660.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    22. Non-viral Gene Therapy for Stargardt Disease with ECO/pRHO-ABCA4 Self-Assembled Nanoparticles. Mol Ther. 2020 01 08; 28(1):293-303. Sun D, Schur RM, Sears AE, Gao SQ, Vaidya A, Sun W, Maeda A, Kern T, Palczewski K, Lu ZR. PMID: 31611143; PMCID: PMC6952167.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    23. Dyslipidemia in retinal metabolic disorders. EMBO Mol Med. 2019 10; 11(10):e10473. Fu Z, Chen CT, Cagnone G, Heckel E, Sun Y, Cakir B, Tomita Y, Huang S, Li Q, Britton W, Cho SS, Kern TS, Hellström A, Joyal JS, Smith LE. PMID: 31486227; PMCID: PMC6783651.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 36     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    24. Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy: Contribution and Limitations of Laboratory Research. Ophthalmic Res. 2019; 62(4):196-202. Kern TS, Antonetti DA, Smith LEH. PMID: 31362288; PMCID: PMC6872907.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    25. Retinol binding protein 3 is increased in the retina of patients with diabetes resistant to diabetic retinopathy. Sci Transl Med. 2019 07 03; 11(499). Yokomizo H, Maeda Y, Park K, Clermont AC, Hernandez SL, Fickweiler W, Li Q, Wang CH, Paniagua SM, Simao F, Ishikado A, Sun B, Wu IH, Katagiri S, Pober DM, Tinsley LJ, Avery RL, Feener EP, Kern TS, Keenan HA, Aiello LP, Sun JK, King GL. PMID: 31270273; PMCID: PMC7132633.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 40     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    26. Diabetes induces IL-17A-Act1-FADD-dependent retinal endothelial cell death and capillary degeneration. J Diabetes Complications. 2019 09; 33(9):668-674. Lindstrom SI, Sigurdardottir S, Zapadka TE, Tang J, Liu H, Taylor BE, Smith DG, Lee CA, DeAngelis J, Kern TS, Taylor PR. PMID: 31239234; PMCID: PMC6690768.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    27. Diabetes-mediated IL-17A enhances retinal inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular permeability. Cell Immunol. 2019 07; 341:103921. Sigurdardottir S, Zapadka TE, Lindstrom SI, Liu H, Taylor BE, Lee CA, Kern TS, Taylor PR. PMID: 31076079; PMCID: PMC6599623.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. Transducin1, Phototransduction and the Development of Early Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2019 04 01; 60(5):1538-1546. Liu H, Tang J, Du Y, Saadane A, Samuels I, Veenstra A, Kiser JZ, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 30994864; PMCID: PMC6736377.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Metformin-induced changes of the gut microbiota in healthy young men: results of a non-blinded, one-armed intervention study. Diabetologia. 2019 06; 62(6):1024-1035. Bryrup T, Thomsen CW, Kern T, Allin KH, Brandslund I, Jørgensen NR, Vestergaard H, Hansen T, Hansen TH, Pedersen O, Nielsen T. PMID: 30904939; PMCID: PMC6509092.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 76     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    30. Noninvasive Two-Photon Microscopy Imaging of Mouse Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1834:333-343. Palczewska G, Kern TS, Palczewski K. PMID: 30324453; PMCID: PMC6991118.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    31. Two-photon imaging of the mammalian retina with ultrafast pulsing laser. JCI Insight. 2018 09 06; 3(17). Palczewska G, Stremplewski P, Suh S, Alexander N, Salom D, Dong Z, Ruminski D, Choi EH, Sears AE, Kern TS, Wojtkowski M, Palczewski K. PMID: 30185665; PMCID: PMC6171813.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    32. D-cis-Diltiazem Can Produce Oxidative Stress in Healthy Depolarized Rods In Vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 06 01; 59(7):2999-3010. Berkowitz BA, Podolsky RH, Farrell B, Lee H, Trepanier C, Berri AM, Dernay K, Graffice E, Shafie-Khorassani F, Kern TS, Roberts R. PMID: 30025125; PMCID: PMC5995482.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. The Absence of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Inhibits Retinal Capillary Degeneration in Diabetic Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 04 01; 59(5):2042-2053. Nahomi RB, Sampathkumar S, Myers AM, Elghazi L, Smith DG, Tang J, Lee CA, Kern TS, Nagaraj RH, Fort PE. PMID: 29677366; PMCID: PMC5908388.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    34. Targeting CD6 for the treatment of experimental autoimmune uveitis. J Autoimmun. 2018 06; 90:84-93. Zhang L, Li Y, Qiu W, Bell BA, Dvorina N, Baldwin WM, Singer N, Kern T, Caspi RR, Fox DA, Lin F. PMID: 29472120; PMCID: PMC5949263.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    35. Photobiomodulation Inhibits Long-term Structural and Functional Lesions of Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes. 2018 02; 67(2):291-298. Cheng Y, Du Y, Liu H, Tang J, Veenstra A, Kern TS. PMID: 29167189; PMCID: PMC5780063.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. A Combination of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Modulators Protects Photoreceptors from Degeneration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018 02; 364(2):207-220. Orban T, Leinonen H, Getter T, Dong Z, Sun W, Gao S, Veenstra A, Heidari-Torkabadi H, Kern TS, Kiser PD, Palczewski K. PMID: 29162627; PMCID: PMC5771314.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    37. Photoreceptor cells produce inflammatory products that contribute to retinal vascular permeability in a mouse model of diabetes. Diabetologia. 2017 10; 60(10):2111-2120. Tonade D, Liu H, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 28755268; PMCID: PMC5660634.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. Diabetes of 5 years duration does not lead to photoreceptor degeneration in the canine non-tapetal inferior-nasal retina. Exp Eye Res. 2017 09; 162:126-128. Tonade D, Kern TS. PMID: 28734672; PMCID: PMC5788031.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Do photoreceptor cells cause the development of retinal vascular disease? Vision Res. 2017 10; 139:65-71. Kern TS. PMID: 28438678; PMCID: PMC5677572.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    40. Loss of CD40 attenuates experimental diabetes-induced retinal inflammation but does not protect mice from electroretinogram defects. Vis Neurosci. 2017 01; 34:E009. Samuels IS, Portillo JC, Miao Y, Kern TS, Subauste CS. PMID: 28965505; PMCID: PMC8893597.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Mechanistic Insights into Pathological Changes in the Diabetic Retina: Implications for Targeting Diabetic Retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2017 Jan; 187(1):9-19. Roy S, Kern TS, Song B, Stuebe C. PMID: 27846381; PMCID: PMC5225303.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 100     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    42. Ligation of CD40 in Human Müller Cells Induces P2X7 Receptor-Dependent Death of Retinal Endothelial Cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 11 01; 57(14):6278-6286. Portillo JC, Lopez Corcino Y, Dubyak GR, Kern TS, Matsuyama S, Subauste CS. PMID: 27893093; PMCID: PMC5119488.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    43. Eyes on systems pharmacology. Pharmacol Res. 2016 Dec; 114:39-41. Chen Y, Kern TS, Kiser PD, Palczewski K. PMID: 27720767; PMCID: PMC5154905.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    44. Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines as a Tool to Study Inter-Individual Differences in the Response to Glucose. PLoS One. 2016; 11(8):e0160504. Grassi MA, Rao VR, Chen S, Cao D, Gao X, Cleary PA, Huang RS, Paterson AD, Natarajan R, Rehman J, Kern TS, DCCT/EDIC Research Group. PMID: 27509144; PMCID: PMC4979894.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    45. Photoreceptor Cells Produce Inflammatory Mediators That Contribute to Endothelial Cell Death in Diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 08 01; 57(10):4264-71. Tonade D, Liu H, Kern TS. PMID: 27548900; PMCID: PMC5015981.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    46. Photoreceptor Cells Influence Retinal Vascular Degeneration in Mouse Models of Retinal Degeneration and Diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 08 01; 57(10):4272-81. Liu H, Tang J, Du Y, Saadane A, Tonade D, Samuels I, Veenstra A, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 27548901; PMCID: PMC5015983.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. CD40 in Retinal Müller Cells Induces P2X7-Dependent Cytokine Expression in Macrophages/Microglia in Diabetic Mice and Development of Early Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes. 2017 02; 66(2):483-493. Portillo JC, Lopez Corcino Y, Miao Y, Tang J, Sheibani N, Kern TS, Dubyak GR, Subauste CS. PMID: 27474370; PMCID: PMC5248988.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 66     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    48. Synergistically acting agonists and antagonists of G protein-coupled receptors prevent photoreceptor cell degeneration. Sci Signal. 2016 07 26; 9(438):ra74. Chen Y, Palczewska G, Masuho I, Gao S, Jin H, Dong Z, Gieser L, Brooks MJ, Kiser PD, Kern TS, Martemyanov KA, Swaroop A, Palczewski K. PMID: 27460988; PMCID: PMC4972460.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Image registration and averaging of low laser power two-photon fluorescence images of mouse retina. Biomed Opt Express. 2016 Jul 01; 7(7):2671-91. Alexander NS, Palczewska G, Stremplewski P, Wojtkowski M, Kern TS, Palczewski K. PMID: 27446697; PMCID: PMC4948621.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13  
    50. Photobiomodulation Mitigates Diabetes-Induced Retinopathy by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms: Evidence from Intervention Studies in Pigmented Mice. PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0139003. Saliba A, Du Y, Liu H, Patel S, Roberts R, Berkowitz BA, Kern TS. PMID: 26426815; PMCID: PMC4591336.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    51. Systemic Retinaldehyde Treatment Corrects Retinal Oxidative Stress, Rod Dysfunction, and Impaired Visual Performance in Diabetic Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Oct; 56(11):6294-303. Berkowitz BA, Kern TS, Bissig D, Patel P, Bhatia A, Kefalov VJ, Roberts R. PMID: 26431483; PMCID: PMC4594469.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Diabetic Retinopathy: Retina-Specific Methods for Maintenance of Diabetic Rodents and Evaluation of Vascular Histopathology and Molecular Abnormalities. Curr Protoc Mouse Biol. 2015 Sep 01; 5(3):247-270. Veenstra A, Liu H, Lee CA, Du Y, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 26331759; PMCID: PMC4597317.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    53. Retinylamine Benefits Early Diabetic Retinopathy in Mice. J Biol Chem. 2015 Aug 28; 290(35):21568-79. Liu H, Tang J, Du Y, Lee CA, Golczak M, Muthusamy A, Antonetti DA, Veenstra AA, Amengual J, von Lintig J, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 26139608; PMCID: PMC4571881.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability. FASEB J. 2015 May; 29(5):2194-204. Du Y, Cramer M, Lee CA, Tang J, Muthusamy A, Antonetti DA, Jin H, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 25667222; PMCID: PMC4415023.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Metanx and early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jan 08; 56(1):647-53. Liu H, Tang J, Lee CA, Kern TS. PMID: 25574044; PMCID: PMC4311777.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    56. Photoreceptors in diabetic retinopathy. J Diabetes Investig. 2015 Jul; 6(4):371-80. Kern TS, Berkowitz BA. PMID: 26221514; PMCID: PMC4511295.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 71     Fields:    
    57. Proinflammatory responses induced by CD40 in retinal endothelial and Müller cells are inhibited by blocking CD40-Traf2,3 or CD40-Traf6 signaling. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Dec 04; 55(12):8590-7. Portillo JA, Schwartz I, Zarini S, Bapputty R, Kern TS, Gubitosi-Klug RA, Murphy RC, Subauste MC, Subauste CS. PMID: 25477319; PMCID: PMC4280881.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    58. CD40 promotes the development of early diabetic retinopathy in mice. Diabetologia. 2014 Oct; 57(10):2222-31. Portillo JA, Greene JA, Okenka G, Miao Y, Sheibani N, Kern TS, Subauste CS. PMID: 25015056; PMCID: PMC4291184.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    59. Retinal and nonocular abnormalities in Cyp27a1(-/-)Cyp46a1(-/-) mice with dysfunctional metabolism of cholesterol. Am J Pathol. 2014 Sep; 184(9):2403-19. Saadane A, Mast N, Charvet CD, Omarova S, Zheng W, Huang SS, Kern TS, Peachey NS, Pikuleva IA. PMID: 25065682; PMCID: PMC4188134.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    60. Interrelationships between the Retinal Neuroglia and Vasculature in Diabetes. Diabetes Metab J. 2014 Jun; 38(3):163-70. Kern TS. PMID: 25003068; PMCID: PMC4083021.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20  
    61. Diabetes-induced impairment in visual function in mice: contributions of p38 MAPK, rage, leukocytes, and aldose reductase. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 May 02; 55(5):2904-10. Lee CA, Li G, Patel MD, Petrash JM, Benetz BA, Veenstra A, Amengual J, von Lintig J, Burant CJ, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 23920367; PMCID: PMC4010365.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    62. Photobiomodulation in the treatment of patients with non-center-involving diabetic macular oedema. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Aug; 98(8):1013-5. Tang J, Herda AA, Kern TS. PMID: 24682183; PMCID: PMC4106479.
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    63. Regenerative therapeutic potential of adipose stromal cells in early stage diabetic retinopathy. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84671. Rajashekhar G, Ramadan A, Abburi C, Callaghan B, Traktuev DO, Evans-Molina C, Maturi R, Harris A, Kern TS, March KL. PMID: 24416262; PMCID: PMC3886987.
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    64. Modulation of retinal Müller cells by complement receptor C5aR. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Dec 17; 54(13):8191-8. Cheng L, Bu H, Portillo JA, Li Y, Subauste CS, Huang SS, Kern TS, Lin F. PMID: 24265019; PMCID: PMC3867184.
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    65. NRF2 plays a protective role in diabetic retinopathy in mice. Diabetologia. 2014 Jan; 57(1):204-13. Xu Z, Wei Y, Gong J, Cho H, Park JK, Sung ER, Huang H, Wu L, Eberhart C, Handa JT, Du Y, Kern TS, Thimmulappa R, Barber AJ, Biswal S, Duh EJ. PMID: 24186494; PMCID: PMC4039644.
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    66. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e78405. Veenstra AA, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 24205223; PMCID: PMC3804483.
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    67. Leukocytes from diabetic patients kill retinal endothelial cells: effects of berberine. Mol Vis. 2013; 19:2092-105. Tian P, Ge H, Liu H, Kern TS, Du L, Guan L, Su S, Liu P. PMID: 24146542; PMCID: PMC3800284.
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    68. Photoreceptor cells are major contributors to diabetes-induced oxidative stress and local inflammation in the retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Oct 08; 110(41):16586-91. Du Y, Veenstra A, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 24067647; PMCID: PMC3799310.
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    69. IGFBP-3 and TNF-α regulate retinal endothelial cell apoptosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Aug 09; 54(8):5376-84. Zhang Q, Jiang Y, Miller MJ, Peng B, Liu L, Soderland C, Tang J, Kern TS, Pintar J, Steinle JJ. PMID: 23868984; PMCID: PMC3741024.
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    70. β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice exhibit A diabetic retinopathy phenotype. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e70555. Jiang Y, Zhang Q, Liu L, Tang J, Kern TS, Steinle JJ. PMID: 23894672; PMCID: PMC3722144.
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    71. MyD88-dependent pathways in leukocytes affect the retina in diabetes. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68871. Tang J, Allen Lee C, Du Y, Sun Y, Pearlman E, Sheibani N, Kern TS. PMID: 23874797; PMCID: PMC3708907.
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    72. Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in diabetic dogs and mice: relationship to glycemic control and retinal capillary degeneration. Mol Vis. 2013; 19:1413-21. Howell SJ, Mekhail MN, Azem R, Ward NL, Kern TS. PMID: 23825921; PMCID: PMC3695756.
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    73. Low-intensity far-red light inhibits early lesions that contribute to diabetic retinopathy: in vivo and in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May 01; 54(5):3681-90. Tang J, Du Y, Lee CA, Talahalli R, Eells JT, Kern TS. PMID: 23557732; PMCID: PMC3668802.
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    74. Circulating mononuclear progenitor cells: differential roles for subpopulations in repair of retinal vascular injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Apr 26; 54(4):3000-9. Caballero S, Hazra S, Bhatwadekar A, Li Calzi S, Paradiso LJ, Miller LP, Chang LJ, Kern TS, Grant MB. PMID: 23572102; PMCID: PMC3638665.
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    75. Deletion of aldose reductase from mice inhibits diabetes-induced retinal capillary degeneration and superoxide generation. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e62081. Tang J, Du Y, Petrash JM, Sheibani N, Kern TS. PMID: 23614016; PMCID: PMC3628579.
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    76. Long-term type 1 diabetes influences haematopoietic stem cells by reducing vascular repair potential and increasing inflammatory monocyte generation in a murine model. Diabetologia. 2013 Mar; 56(3):644-53. Hazra S, Jarajapu YP, Stepps V, Caballero S, Thinschmidt JS, Sautina L, Bengtsson N, Licalzi S, Dominguez J, Kern TS, Segal MS, Ash JD, Saban DR, Bartelmez SH, Grant MB. PMID: 23192694; PMCID: PMC3773610.
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    77. Leukocytes regulate retinal capillary degeneration in the diabetic mouse via generation of leukotrienes. J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Jan; 93(1):135-43. Talahalli R, Zarini S, Tang J, Li G, Murphy R, Kern TS, Gubitosi-Klug RA. PMID: 23108096; PMCID: PMC3525833.
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    78. Exclusion of aldose reductase as a mediator of ERG deficits in a mouse model of diabetic eye disease. Vis Neurosci. 2012 Nov; 29(6):267-74. Samuels IS, Lee CA, Petrash JM, Peachey NS, Kern TS. PMID: 23101909; PMCID: PMC3745719.
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    79. Marrow-derived cells regulate the development of early diabetic retinopathy and tactile allodynia in mice. Diabetes. 2012 Dec; 61(12):3294-303. Li G, Veenstra AA, Talahalli RR, Wang X, Gubitosi-Klug RA, Sheibani N, Kern TS. PMID: 22923475; PMCID: PMC3501859.
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    80. Antibody-mediated retinal pericyte injury: implications for diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Aug 13; 53(9):5520-6. Li Y, Smith D, Li Q, Sheibani N, Huang S, Kern T, Nagaraj RH, Lin F. PMID: 22786897; PMCID: PMC3419006.
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    81. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids preserve retinal function in type 2 diabetic mice. Nutr Diabetes. 2012 Jul 23; 2:e36. Sapieha P, Chen J, Stahl A, Seaward MR, Favazza TL, Juan AM, Hatton CJ, Joyal JS, Krah NM, Dennison RJ, Tang J, Kern TS, Akula JD, Smith LE. PMID: 23448719; PMCID: PMC3408641.
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    82. Update on animal models of diabetic retinopathy: from molecular approaches to mice and higher mammals. Dis Model Mech. 2012 Jul; 5(4):444-56. Robinson R, Barathi VA, Chaurasia SS, Wong TY, Kern TS. PMID: 22730475; PMCID: PMC3380708.
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    83. Acetylation of retinal histones in diabetes increases inflammatory proteins: effects of minocycline and manipulation of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC). J Biol Chem. 2012 Jul 27; 287(31):25869-80. Kadiyala CS, Zheng L, Du Y, Yohannes E, Kao HY, Miyagi M, Kern TS. PMID: 22648458; PMCID: PMC3406672.
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    84. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibits ischemia/reperfusion induced neurodegeneration in retina via suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Jun 29; 423(2):276-81. Li C, Wang L, Kern TS, Zheng L. PMID: 22640737.
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    85. Compound 49b prevents diabetes-induced apoptosis through increased IGFBP-3 levels. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 May 17; 53(6):3004-13. Zhang Q, Guy K, Pagadala J, Jiang Y, Walker RJ, Liu L, Soderland C, Kern TS, Ferry R, He H, Yates CR, Miller DD, Steinle JJ. PMID: 22467575; PMCID: PMC3378083.
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    86. Oxidation of fatty acids is the source of increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in kidney cortical tubules in early diabetes. Diabetes. 2012 Aug; 61(8):2074-83. Rosca MG, Vazquez EJ, Chen Q, Kerner J, Kern TS, Hoppel CL. PMID: 22586586; PMCID: PMC3402323.
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    87. Transcriptome analysis using next generation sequencing reveals molecular signatures of diabetic retinopathy and efficacy of candidate drugs. Mol Vis. 2012; 18:1123-46. Kandpal RP, Rajasimha HK, Brooks MJ, Nellissery J, Wan J, Qian J, Kern TS, Swaroop A. PMID: 22605924; PMCID: PMC3351417.
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    88. Evidence for diffuse central retinal edema in vivo in diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29619. Berkowitz BA, Bissig D, Ye Y, Valsadia P, Kern TS, Roberts R. PMID: 22253747; PMCID: PMC3256169.
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    89. Beneficial effects of a novel RAGE inhibitor on early diabetic retinopathy and tactile allodynia. Mol Vis. 2011; 17:3156-65. Li G, Tang J, Du Y, Lee CA, Kern TS. PMID: 22171162; PMCID: PMC3235538.
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    90. Retinal pericytes inhibit activated T cell proliferation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Nov 21; 52(12):9005-10. Tu Z, Li Y, Smith DS, Sheibani N, Huang S, Kern T, Lin F. PMID: 22003106; PMCID: PMC3231798.
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    91. Curcumin inhibits neuronal and vascular degeneration in retina after ischemia and reperfusion injury. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23194. Wang L, Li C, Guo H, Kern TS, Huang K, Zheng L. PMID: 21858029; PMCID: PMC3153496.
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    92. The unconventional role of acid sphingomyelinase in regulation of retinal microangiopathy in diabetic human and animal models. Diabetes. 2011 Sep; 60(9):2370-8. Opreanu M, Tikhonenko M, Bozack S, Lydic TA, Reid GE, McSorley KM, Sochacki A, Perez GI, Esselman WJ, Kern T, Kolesnick R, Grant MB, Busik JV. PMID: 21771974; PMCID: PMC3161322.
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    93. Increased tumor necrosis factor-α, cleaved caspase 3 levels and insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation in the β₁-adrenergic receptor knockout mouse. Mol Vis. 2011; 17:1822-8. Panjala SR, Jiang Y, Kern TS, Thomas SA, Steinle JJ. PMID: 21850156; PMCID: PMC3137556.
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    94. Inflammation in diabetic retinopathy. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011 Sep; 30(5):343-58. Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 21635964; PMCID: PMC3433044.
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    95. NF-κB subunits are differentially distributed in cells of lumbar dorsal root ganglia in naïve and diabetic rats. Neurosci Lett. 2011 Feb 18; 490(1):41-5. Berti-Mattera LN, Larkin B, Hourmouzis Z, Kern TS, Siegel RE. PMID: 21167912; PMCID: PMC4079108.
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    96. Validation of structural and functional lesions of diabetic retinopathy in mice. Mol Vis. 2010 Oct 19; 16:2121-31. Kern TS, Tang J, Berkowitz BA. PMID: 21139688; PMCID: PMC2994360.
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    97. PP2A contributes to endothelial death in high glucose: inhibition by benfotiamine. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Dec; 299(6):R1610-7. Du Y, Kowluru A, Kern TS. PMID: 20881100; PMCID: PMC3774204.
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    98. Comparison of three strains of diabetic rats with respect to the rate at which retinopathy and tactile allodynia develop. Mol Vis. 2010 Aug 15; 16:1629-39. Kern TS, Miller CM, Tang J, Du Y, Ball SL, Berti-Matera L. PMID: 20806092; PMCID: PMC2927372.
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    99. Application of isoproterenol inhibits diabetic-like changes in the rat retina. Exp Eye Res. 2010 Aug; 91(2):171-9. Jiang Y, Walker RJ, Kern TS, Steinle JJ. PMID: 20493839; PMCID: PMC4319116.
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    100. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in vascular endothelium inhibits the microvascular lesions of diabetic retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2010 May; 176(5):2550-8. Kern TS, Du Y, Miller CM, Hatala DA, Levin LA. PMID: 20363911; PMCID: PMC2861119.
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    101. Effects of p38 MAPK inhibition on early stages of diabetic retinopathy and sensory nerve function. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Apr; 51(4):2158-64. Du Y, Tang J, Li G, Li G, Berti-Mattera L, Lee CA, Bartkowski D, Gale D, Monahan J, Niesman MR, Alton G, Kern TS. PMID: 20071676; PMCID: PMC2868413.
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    102. Activation of PKC-delta and SHP-1 by hyperglycemia causes vascular cell apoptosis and diabetic retinopathy. Nat Med. 2009 Nov; 15(11):1298-306. Geraldes P, Hiraoka-Yamamoto J, Matsumoto M, Clermont A, Leitges M, Marette A, Aiello LP, Kern TS, King GL. PMID: 19881493; PMCID: PMC3290906.
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    103. Remodeling of retinal Fatty acids in an animal model of diabetes: a decrease in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with a decrease in fatty acid elongases Elovl2 and Elovl4. Diabetes. 2010 Jan; 59(1):219-27. Tikhonenko M, Lydic TA, Wang Y, Chen W, Opreanu M, Sochacki A, McSorley KM, Renis RL, Kern T, Jump DB, Reid GE, Busik JV. PMID: 19875612; PMCID: PMC2797925.
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    104. Identification of primary retinal cells and ex vivo detection of proinflammatory molecules using flow cytometry. Mol Vis. 2009 Jul 17; 15:1383-9. Portillo JA, Okenka G, Kern TS, Subauste CS. PMID: 19626134; PMCID: PMC2713733.
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    105. Increased basement membrane thickness, pericyte ghosts, and loss of retinal thickness and cells in dopamine beta hydroxylase knockout mice. Exp Eye Res. 2009 Jun; 88(6):1014-9. Steinle JJ, Kern TS, Thomas SA, McFadyen-Ketchum LS, Smith CP. PMID: 19176214.
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    106. Role of nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite and PARP in diabetic retinopathy. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2009 01 01; 14(10):3974-87. Zheng L, Kern TS. PMID: 19273327.
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    107. CD40 mediates retinal inflammation and neurovascular degeneration. J Immunol. 2008 Dec 15; 181(12):8719-26. Portillo JA, Van Grol J, Zheng L, Okenka G, Gentil K, Garland A, Carlson EC, Kern TS, Subauste CS. PMID: 19050292.
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    108. Retinal ion regulation in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy: natural history and the effect of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase overexpression. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 May; 50(5):2351-8. Berkowitz BA, Gradianu M, Bissig D, Kern TS, Roberts R. PMID: 19074809; PMCID: PMC2688071.
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    109. Glutaredoxin regulates autocrine and paracrine proinflammatory responses in retinal glial (muller) cells. J Biol Chem. 2009 Feb 20; 284(8):4760-6. Shelton MD, Distler AM, Kern TS, Mieyal JJ. PMID: 19074435; PMCID: PMC2643491.
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    110. Markers of glycemic control in the mouse: comparisons of 6-h- and overnight-fasted blood glucoses to Hb A1c. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct; 295(4):E981-6. Han BG, Hao CM, Tchekneva EE, Wang YY, Lee CA, Ebrahim B, Harris RC, Kern TS, Wasserman DH, Breyer MD, Qi Z. PMID: 18664598; PMCID: PMC2575908.
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    111. Sulfasalazine blocks the development of tactile allodynia in diabetic rats. Diabetes. 2008 Oct; 57(10):2801-8. Berti-Mattera LN, Kern TS, Siegel RE, Nemet I, Mitchell R. PMID: 18633115; PMCID: PMC2551692.
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    112. Retinal ganglion cells in diabetes. J Physiol. 2008 Sep 15; 586(18):4401-8. Kern TS, Barber AJ. PMID: 18565995; PMCID: PMC2614025.
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    113. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) meeting summary: Advances toward measuring diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy: from the bench to the clinic and back again (April 4-5, 2007, Baltimore, Maryland). J Diabetes Complications. 2009 May-Jun; 23(3):219-23. Kern TS, Berkowitz BA, Feldman EL. PMID: 18413183.
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    114. 5-Lipoxygenase, but not 12/15-lipoxygenase, contributes to degeneration of retinal capillaries in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2008 May; 57(5):1387-93. Gubitosi-Klug RA, Talahalli R, Du Y, Nadler JL, Kern TS. PMID: 18346986; PMCID: PMC4444435.
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    115. Targets of tyrosine nitration in diabetic rat retina. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008 May; 7(5):864-74. Zhan X, Du Y, Crabb JS, Gu X, Kern TS, Crabb JW. PMID: 18165258; PMCID: PMC2401337.
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    116. Long-term, topical insulin administration increases the severity of retinal vascular pathology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Optometry. 2007 Nov; 78(11):574-81. Koevary SB, Nussey J, Kern TS. PMID: 17976619.
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    117. Captopril inhibits capillary degeneration in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Curr Eye Res. 2007 Oct; 32(10):883-9. Zhang JZ, Xi X, Gao L, Kern TS. PMID: 17963108.
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    118. Oxidative damage in the retinal mitochondria of diabetic mice: possible protection by superoxide dismutase. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Aug; 48(8):3805-11. Kanwar M, Chan PS, Kern TS, Kowluru RA. PMID: 17652755.
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    119. Critical role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in degeneration of retinal capillaries in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetologia. 2007 Sep; 50(9):1987-1996. Zheng L, Du Y, Miller C, Gubitosi-Klug RA, Kern TS, Ball S, Berkowitz BA. PMID: 17583794.
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    120. 6-Fluoro-6-deoxy-D-glucose as a tracer of glucose transport. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jul; 293(1):E237-45. Landau BR, Spring-Robinson CL, Muzic RF, Rachdaoui N, Rubin D, Berridge MS, Schumann WC, Chandramouli V, Kern TS, Ismail-Beigi F. PMID: 17405828.
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    121. Ischemic vascular damage can be repaired by healthy, but not diabetic, endothelial progenitor cells. Diabetes. 2007 Apr; 56(4):960-7. Caballero S, Sengupta N, Afzal A, Chang KH, Li Calzi S, Guberski DL, Kern TS, Grant MB. PMID: 17395742; PMCID: PMC3746188.
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    122. Glutaredoxin regulates nuclear factor kappa-B and intercellular adhesion molecule in Müller cells: model of diabetic retinopathy. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 27; 282(17):12467-74. Shelton MD, Kern TS, Mieyal JJ. PMID: 17324929.
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    123. Salicylate-based anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit the early lesion of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2007 Feb; 56(2):337-45. Zheng L, Howell SJ, Hatala DA, Huang K, Kern TS. PMID: 17259377.
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    124. Topical administration of nepafenac inhibits diabetes-induced retinal microvascular disease and underlying abnormalities of retinal metabolism and physiology. Diabetes. 2007 Feb; 56(2):373-9. Kern TS, Miller CM, Du Y, Zheng L, Mohr S, Ball SL, Kim M, Jamison JA, Bingaman DP. PMID: 17259381.
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    125. Contributions of inflammatory processes to the development of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Exp Diabetes Res. 2007; 2007:95103. Kern TS. PMID: 18274606; PMCID: PMC2216058.
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    126. Retinal ischemia and reperfusion causes capillary degeneration: similarities to diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jan; 48(1):361-7. Zheng L, Gong B, Hatala DA, Kern TS. PMID: 17197555.
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    127. Reduction of diabetes-induced oxidative stress, fibrotic cytokine expression, and renal dysfunction in protein kinase Cbeta-null mice. Diabetes. 2006 Nov; 55(11):3112-20. Ohshiro Y, Ma RC, Yasuda Y, Hiraoka-Yamamoto J, Clermont AC, Isshiki K, Yagi K, Arikawa E, Kern TS, King GL. PMID: 17065350.
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    128. Association between endothelin-1 and collagen deposition in db/db diabetic mouse kidneys. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Jan 06; 339(1):65-70. Mishra R, Emancipator SN, Kern TS, Simonson MS. PMID: 16297859.
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    129. Vascular damage in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy: relation to neuronal and glial changes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Nov; 46(11):4281-7. Feit-Leichman RA, Kinouchi R, Takeda M, Fan Z, Mohr S, Kern TS, Chen DF. PMID: 16249509.
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    130. The Ins2Akita mouse as a model of early retinal complications in diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jun; 46(6):2210-8. Barber AJ, Antonetti DA, Kern TS, Reiter CE, Soans RS, Krady JK, Levison SW, Gardner TW, Bronson SK. PMID: 15914643.
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    131. Glycation of mitochondrial proteins from diabetic rat kidney is associated with excess superoxide formation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005 Aug; 289(2):F420-30. Rosca MG, Mustata TG, Kinter MT, Ozdemir AM, Kern TS, Szweda LI, Brownlee M, Monnier VM, Weiss MF. PMID: 15814529.
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    132. Paradoxical effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and antioxidant vitamins in diabetic rats: improved retinopathy and renal mitochondrial defects but deterioration of collagen matrix glycoxidation and cross-linking. Diabetes. 2005 Feb; 54(2):517-26. Mustata GT, Rosca M, Biemel KM, Reihl O, Smith MA, Viswanathan A, Strauch C, Du Y, Tang J, Kern TS, Lederer MO, Brownlee M, Weiss MF, Monnier VM. PMID: 15677510.
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    133. Chronically elevated glucose-induced apoptosis is mediated by inactivation of Akt in cultured Müller cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Jan 21; 326(3):548-53. Xi X, Gao L, Hatala DA, Smith DG, Codispoti MC, Gong B, Kern TS, Zhang JZ. PMID: 15596134.
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    134. High glucose evokes an intrinsic proapoptotic signaling pathway in mesangial cells. Kidney Int. 2005 Jan; 67(1):82-93. Mishra R, Emancipator SN, Kern T, Simonson MS. PMID: 15610231.
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    135. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy via regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB. Diabetes. 2004 Nov; 53(11):2960-7. Zheng L, Szabó C, Kern TS. PMID: 15504977.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 111     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    136. Interaction between NO and COX pathways in retinal cells exposed to elevated glucose and retina of diabetic rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004 Oct; 287(4):R735-41. Du Y, Sarthy VP, Kern TS. PMID: 15371279.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 71     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    137. A central role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. FASEB J. 2004 Sep; 18(12):1450-2. Joussen AM, Poulaki V, Le ML, Koizumi K, Esser C, Janicki H, Schraermeyer U, Kociok N, Fauser S, Kirchhof B, Kern TS, Adamis AP. PMID: 15231732.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 535     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    138. Comparison of glucose influx and blood flow in retina and brain of diabetic rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004 Apr; 24(4):449-57. Puchowicz MA, Xu K, Magness D, Miller C, Lust WD, Kern TS, LaManna JC. PMID: 15087714.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    139. Adipose differentiation-related protein and regulators of lipid homeostasis identified by gene expression profiling in the murine db/db diabetic kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004 May; 286(5):F913-21. Mishra R, Emancipator SN, Miller C, Kern T, Simonson MS. PMID: 15075187.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    140. Regulation of the early subnormal retinal oxygenation response in experimental diabetes by inducible nitric oxide synthase. Diabetes. 2004 Jan; 53(1):173-8. Berkowitz BA, Luan H, Gupta RR, Pacheco D, Seidner A, Roberts R, Liggett J, Knoerzer DL, Connor JR, Du Y, Kern TS, Ito Y. PMID: 14693712.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    141. Hyperglycemia increases mitochondrial superoxide in retina and retinal cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003 Dec 01; 35(11):1491-9. Du Y, Miller CM, Kern TS. PMID: 14642397.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 146     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    142. Captopril inhibits glucose accumulation in retinal cells in diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Sep; 44(9):4001-5. Zhang JZ, Gao L, Widness M, Xi X, Kern TS. PMID: 12939321.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    143. A comprehensive analysis of the expression of crystallins in mouse retina. Mol Vis. 2003 Aug 28; 9:410-9. Xi J, Farjo R, Yoshida S, Kern TS, Swaroop A, Andley UP. PMID: 12949468.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 69     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    144. Non-uniform distribution of lesions and biochemical abnormalities within the retina of diabetic humans. Curr Eye Res. 2003 Jul; 27(1):7-13. Tang J, Mohr S, Du YD, Kern TS. PMID: 12868004.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    145. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB induced by diabetes and high glucose regulates a proapoptotic program in retinal pericytes. Diabetes. 2002 Jul; 51(7):2241-8. Romeo G, Liu WH, Asnaghi V, Kern TS, Lorenzi M. PMID: 12086956.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 159     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    146. Caspase activation in retinas of diabetic and galactosemic mice and diabetic patients. Diabetes. 2002 Apr; 51(4):1172-9. Mohr S, Xi X, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 11916941.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 70     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    147. Pharmacological inhibition of diabetic retinopathy: aminoguanidine and aspirin. Diabetes. 2001 Jul; 50(7):1636-42. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 11423486.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 92     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    148. Retinal glutamate in diabetes and effect of antioxidants. Neurochem Int. 2001 Apr; 38(5):385-90. Kowluru RA, Engerman RL, Case GL, Kern TS. PMID: 11222918.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 68     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    149. Response of capillary cell death to aminoguanidine predicts the development of retinopathy: comparison of diabetes and galactosemia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Nov; 41(12):3972-8. Kern TS, Tang J, Mizutani M, Kowluru RA, Nagaraj RH, Romeo G, Podesta F, Lorenzi M. PMID: 11053301.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 115     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    150. Retina accumulates more glucose than does the embryologically similar cerebral cortex in diabetic rats. Diabetologia. 2000 Nov; 43(11):1417-23. Tang J, Zhu XW, Lust WD, Kern TS. PMID: 11126412.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    151. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia VIII. Prevention by aminoguanidine. Curr Eye Res. 2000 Oct; 21(4):814-9. Kowluru RA, Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 11120572.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    152. Diabetes downregulates GLUT1 expression in the retina and its microvessels but not in the cerebral cortex or its microvessels. Diabetes. 2000 Jun; 49(6):1016-21. Badr GA, Tang J, Ismail-Beigi F, Kern TS. PMID: 10866055.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    153. Diabetes-induced metabolic abnormalities in myocardium: effect of antioxidant therapy. Free Radic Res. 2000 Jan; 32(1):67-74. Kowluru RA, Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 10625218.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    154. Subnormal retinal oxygenation response precedes diabetic-like retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Aug; 40(9):2100-5. Berkowitz BA, Kowluru RA, Frank RN, Kern TS, Hohman TC, Prakash M. PMID: 10440266.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    155. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia. VI. Comparison of retinal and cerebral cortex metabolism, and effects of antioxidant therapy. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Feb; 26(3-4):371-8. Kowluru RA, Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 9895229.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    156. Glut1 and glut3 expression, but not capillary density, is increased by cobalt chloride in rat cerebrum and retina. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999 Jan 22; 64(1):24-33. Badr GA, Zhang JZ, Tang J, Kern TS, Ismail-Beigi F. PMID: 9889305.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    157. Aldose reductase and the development of renal disease in diabetic dogs. J Diabetes Complications. 1999 Jan-Feb; 13(1):10-6. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 10232704.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    158. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia: V. Relationship between protein kinase C and ATPases. Diabetes. 1998 Mar; 47(3):464-9. Kowluru RA, Jirousek MR, Stramm L, Farid N, Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 9519755.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    159. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia. IV. Antioxidant defense system. Free Radic Biol Med. 1997; 22(4):587-92. Kowluru RA, Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 9013121.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 53     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    160. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia. III. Effects of antioxidants. Diabetes. 1996 Sep; 45(9):1233-7. Kowluru RA, Kern TS, Engerman RL, Armstrong D. PMID: 8772728.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    161. A mouse model of diabetic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Aug; 114(8):986-90. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 8694735.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    162. Accelerated death of retinal microvascular cells in human and experimental diabetic retinopathy. J Clin Invest. 1996 Jun 15; 97(12):2883-90. Mizutani M, Kern TS, Lorenzi M. PMID: 8675702; PMCID: PMC507384.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 271     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    163. Amelioration of vascular dysfunctions in diabetic rats by an oral PKC beta inhibitor. Science. 1996 May 03; 272(5262):728-31. Ishii H, Jirousek MR, Koya D, Takagi C, Xia P, Clermont A, Bursell SE, Kern TS, Ballas LM, Heath WF, Stramm LE, Feener EP, King GL. PMID: 8614835.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 187     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    164. Evidence of a glycemic threshold for the formation of pentosidine in diabetic dog lens but not in collagen. Diabetes. 1996 May; 45(5):587-94. Nagaraj RH, Kern TS, Sell DR, Fogarty J, Engerman RL, Monnier VM. PMID: 8621008.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    165. Capillary lesions develop in retina rather than cerebral cortex in diabetes and experimental galactosemia. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Mar; 114(3):306-10. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 8600891.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    166. Retinopathy in animal models of diabetes. Diabetes Metab Rev. 1995 Jul; 11(2):109-20. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 7555563.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 55     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    167. Vascular lesions in diabetes are distributed non-uniformly within the retina. Exp Eye Res. 1995 May; 60(5):545-9. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 7615020.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 40     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    168. Retinopathy in galactosemic dogs continues to progress after cessation of galactosemia. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 Mar; 113(3):355-8. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 7887850.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    169. Galactose-induced retinal microangiopathy in rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995 Feb; 36(2):490-6. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 7843917.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    170. Comparison of retinal lesions in alloxan-diabetic rats and galactose-fed rats. Curr Eye Res. 1994 Dec; 13(12):863-7. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 7720392.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    171. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or galactosemia. II. Comparison of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in retina and cerebral cortex, and effects of antioxidant therapy. Curr Eye Res. 1994 Dec; 13(12):891-6. Kowluru R, Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 7720397.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    172. Characterization of the mechanism for the chronic activation of diacylglycerol-protein kinase C pathway in diabetes and hypergalactosemia. Diabetes. 1994 Sep; 43(9):1122-9. Xia P, Inoguchi T, Kern TS, Engerman RL, Oates PJ, King GL. PMID: 8070612.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 86     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    173. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or galactosemia: ATPases and glutathione. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Jun; 35(7):2962-7. Kern TS, Kowluru RA, Engerman RL. PMID: 8206713.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    174. Nerve conduction and aldose reductase inhibition during 5 years of diabetes or galactosaemia in dogs. Diabetologia. 1994 Feb; 37(2):141-4. Engerman RL, Kern TS, Larson ME. PMID: 8163047.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    175. Capillary basement membrane in retina, kidney, and muscle of diabetic dogs and galactosemic dogs and its response to 5 years aldose reductase inhibition. J Diabetes Complications. 1993 Oct-Dec; 7(4):241-5. Engerman RL, Kern TS, Garment MB. PMID: 8219367.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    176. Retinal polyol and myo-inositol in galactosemic dogs given an aldose-reductase inhibitor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991 Dec; 32(13):3175-7. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 1748548.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    177. Arrest of glomerulopathy in diabetic dogs by improved glycaemic control. Diabetologia. 1990 Sep; 33(9):522-5. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 2253827.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    178. Urinary protein excretion rates in experimentally diabetic dogs and experimentally galactosaemic dogs. Diabetologia. 1988 Dec; 31(12):928-32. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 3240845.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    179. Progression of incipient diabetic retinopathy during good glycemic control. Diabetes. 1987 Jul; 36(7):808-12. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 3556280.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 167     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    180. Is diabetic retinopathy preventable? Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1987; 27(4):225-9. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 3319932.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    181. Microvascular metabolism in diabetes. Metabolism. 1986 Apr; 35(4 Suppl 1):24-7. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 3083206.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    182. Hyperglycemia as a cause of diabetic retinopathy. Metabolism. 1986 Apr; 35(4 Suppl 1):20-3. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 3083205.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    183. Diabetic retinopathy: is it a consequence of hyperglycaemia? Diabet Med. 1985 May; 2(3):200-3. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 2952421.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    184. Hexitol production by canine retinal microvessels. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1985 Mar; 26(3):382-4. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 3972519.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    185. Experimental galactosemia produces diabetic-like retinopathy. Diabetes. 1984 Jan; 33(1):97-100. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 6360771.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 63     Fields:    Translation:Animals
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