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Timothy Scott Kern

Title(s)Professor, Ophthalmology
Address1001 Health Sciences Road
Irvine CA 92697-3950
Phone(949) 824-5324
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    Collapse Research 
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    BLR&D Research Career Scientist Application
    NIH IK6BX003604Oct 1, 2016 - Sep 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Novel therapies to inhibit Diabetic Retinopathy
    NIH R24EY024864Apr 1, 2015 - Oct 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Acetylation and diabetic retinopathy
    NIH I01BX002117Apr 1, 2014 - Mar 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Photoreceptors in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy
    NIH R01EY022938Sep 1, 2013 - Nov 1, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Global Characterization of Lysine Acetylation in Diabetic Retina
    NIH R21EY021595Jan 1, 2012 - Dec 31, 2013
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS
    NIH P01DK057733Sep 1, 2000 - Aug 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Study of diabetic retinopathy
    NIH R56EY000300Dec 1, 1977 - Sep 29, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Study of diabetic retinopathy
    NIH R01EY000300Dec 1, 1977 - Dec 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Photoreceptor cells and RPE contribute to the development of diabetic retinopathy. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Nov 12; 100919. Tonade D, Kern TS. PMID: 33188897.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Successful induction of diabetes in mice demonstrates no gender difference in development of early diabetic retinopathy. PLoS One. 2020; 15(9):e0238727. PMID: 32941450.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    3. All-trans-Retinaldehyde Contributes to Retinal Vascular Permeability in Ischemia Reperfusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2020 06 03; 61(6):8. Dreffs A, Lin CM, Liu X, Shanmugam S, Abcouwer SF, Kern TS, Antonetti DA. PMID: 32492112.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    4. Fatty acid oxidation and photoreceptor metabolic needs. J Lipid Res. 2020 Feb 24. Fu Z, Kern TS, Hellström A, Smith L. PMID: 32094231.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    
    5. Neutrophil elastase contributes to the pathological vascular permeability characteristic of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetologia. 2019 12; 62(12):2365-2374. Liu H, Lessieur EM, Saadane A, Lindstrom SI, Taylor PR, Kern TS. PMID: 31612267.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    6. Dyslipidemia in retinal metabolic disorders. EMBO Mol Med. 2019 10; 11(10):e10473. Fu Z, Chen CT, Cagnone G, Heckel E, Sun Y, Cakir B, Tomita Y, Huang S, Li Q, Britton W, Cho SS, Kern TS, Hellström A, Joyal JS, Smith LE. PMID: 31486227.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    7. Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy: Contribution and Limitations of Laboratory Research. Ophthalmic Res. 2019; 62(4):196-202. Kern TS, Antonetti DA, Smith LEH. PMID: 31362288.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    8. Retinol binding protein 3 is increased in the retina of patients with diabetes resistant to diabetic retinopathy. Sci Transl Med. 2019 07 03; 11(499). Yokomizo H, Maeda Y, Park K, Clermont AC, Hernandez SL, Fickweiler W, Li Q, Wang CH, Paniagua SM, Simao F, Ishikado A, Sun B, Wu IH, Katagiri S, Pober DM, Tinsley LJ, Avery RL, Feener EP, Kern TS, Keenan HA, Aiello LP, Sun JK, King GL. PMID: 31270273.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. Diabetes induces IL-17A-Act1-FADD-dependent retinal endothelial cell death and capillary degeneration. J Diabetes Complications. 2019 09; 33(9):668-674. Lindstrom SI, Sigurdardottir S, Zapadka TE, Tang J, Liu H, Taylor BE, Smith DG, Lee CA, DeAngelis J, Kern TS, Taylor PR. PMID: 31239234.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    10. Diabetes-mediated IL-17A enhances retinal inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular permeability. Cell Immunol. 2019 07; 341:103921. Sigurdardottir S, Zapadka TE, Lindstrom SI, Liu H, Taylor BE, Lee CA, Kern TS, Taylor PR. PMID: 31076079.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    11. Transducin1, Phototransduction and the Development of Early Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2019 04 01; 60(5):1538-1546. Liu H, Tang J, Du Y, Saadane A, Samuels I, Veenstra A, Kiser JZ, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 30994864.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Two-photon imaging of the mammalian retina with ultrafast pulsing laser. JCI Insight. 2018 09 06; 3(17). Palczewska G, Stremplewski P, Suh S, Alexander N, Salom D, Dong Z, Ruminski D, Choi EH, Sears AE, Kern TS, Wojtkowski M, Palczewski K. PMID: 30185665.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    13. The Absence of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Inhibits Retinal Capillary Degeneration in Diabetic Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 04 01; 59(5):2042-2053. Nahomi RB, Sampathkumar S, Myers AM, Elghazi L, Smith DG, Tang J, Lee CA, Kern TS, Nagaraj RH, Fort PE. PMID: 29677366.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    14. Photobiomodulation Inhibits Long-term Structural and Functional Lesions of Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes. 2018 02; 67(2):291-298. Cheng Y, Du Y, Liu H, Tang J, Veenstra A, Kern TS. PMID: 29167189.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. Photoreceptor cells produce inflammatory products that contribute to retinal vascular permeability in a mouse model of diabetes. Diabetologia. 2017 10; 60(10):2111-2120. Tonade D, Liu H, Palczewski K, Kern TS. PMID: 28755268.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. Do photoreceptor cells cause the development of retinal vascular disease? Vision Res. 2017 10; 139:65-71. PMID: 28438678.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    17. Loss of CD40 attenuates experimental diabetes-induced retinal inflammation but does not protect mice from electroretinogram defects. Vis Neurosci. 2017 01; 34:E009. Samuels IS, Portillo JC, Miao Y, Kern TS, Subauste CS. PMID: 28965505.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Mechanistic Insights into Pathological Changes in the Diabetic Retina: Implications for Targeting Diabetic Retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2017 Jan; 187(1):9-19. Roy S, Kern TS, Song B, Stuebe C. PMID: 27846381.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    19. Ligation of CD40 in Human Müller Cells Induces P2X7 Receptor-Dependent Death of Retinal Endothelial Cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 11 01; 57(14):6278-6286. Portillo JC, Lopez Corcino Y, Dubyak GR, Kern TS, Matsuyama S, Subauste CS. PMID: 27893093.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    20. Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines as a Tool to Study Inter-Individual Differences in the Response to Glucose. PLoS One. 2016; 11(8):e0160504. Grassi MA, Rao VR, Chen S, Cao D, Gao X, Cleary PA, Huang RS, Paterson AD, Natarajan R, Rehman J, Kern TS. PMID: 27509144.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    21. Photoreceptor Cells Produce Inflammatory Mediators That Contribute to Endothelial Cell Death in Diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 08 01; 57(10):4264-71. Tonade D, Liu H, Kern TS. PMID: 27548900.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    22. Photoreceptor Cells Influence Retinal Vascular Degeneration in Mouse Models of Retinal Degeneration and Diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 08 01; 57(10):4272-81. PMID: 27548901.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    23. CD40 in Retinal Müller Cells Induces P2X7-Dependent Cytokine Expression in Macrophages/Microglia in Diabetic Mice and Development of Early Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes. 2017 02; 66(2):483-493. Portillo JC, Lopez Corcino Y, Miao Y, Tang J, Sheibani N, Kern TS, Dubyak GR, Subauste CS. PMID: 27474370.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    24. Photobiomodulation Mitigates Diabetes-Induced Retinopathy by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms: Evidence from Intervention Studies in Pigmented Mice. PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0139003. Saliba A, Du Y, Liu H, Patel S, Roberts R, Berkowitz BA, Kern TS. PMID: 26426815.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Systemic Retinaldehyde Treatment Corrects Retinal Oxidative Stress, Rod Dysfunction, and Impaired Visual Performance in Diabetic Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Oct; 56(11):6294-303. Berkowitz BA, Kern TS, Bissig D, Patel P, Bhatia A, Kefalov VJ, Roberts R. PMID: 26431483.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Diabetic Retinopathy: Retina-Specific Methods for Maintenance of Diabetic Rodents and Evaluation of Vascular Histopathology and Molecular Abnormalities. Curr Protoc Mouse Biol. 2015 Sep 01; 5(3):247-270. PMID: 26331759.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    27. Retinylamine Benefits Early Diabetic Retinopathy in Mice. J Biol Chem. 2015 Aug 28; 290(35):21568-79. PMID: 26139608.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability. FASEB J. 2015 May; 29(5):2194-204. PMID: 25667222.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Metanx and early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jan 08; 56(1):647-53. Liu H, Tang J, Lee CA, Kern TS. PMID: 25574044.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    30. Proinflammatory responses induced by CD40 in retinal endothelial and Müller cells are inhibited by blocking CD40-Traf2,3 or CD40-Traf6 signaling. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Dec 04; 55(12):8590-7. Portillo JA, Schwartz I, Zarini S, Bapputty R, Kern TS, Gubitosi-Klug RA, Murphy RC, Subauste MC, Subauste CS. PMID: 25477319.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. CD40 promotes the development of early diabetic retinopathy in mice. Diabetologia. 2014 Oct; 57(10):2222-31. Portillo JA, Greene JA, Okenka G, Miao Y, Sheibani N, Kern TS, Subauste CS. PMID: 25015056.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Retinal and nonocular abnormalities in Cyp27a1(-/-)Cyp46a1(-/-) mice with dysfunctional metabolism of cholesterol. Am J Pathol. 2014 Sep; 184(9):2403-19. Saadane A, Mast N, Charvet CD, Omarova S, Zheng W, Huang SS, Kern TS, Peachey NS, Pikuleva IA. PMID: 25065682.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    33. Diabetes-induced impairment in visual function in mice: contributions of p38 MAPK, rage, leukocytes, and aldose reductase. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 May 02; 55(5):2904-10. Lee CA, Li G, Patel MD, Petrash JM, Benetz BA, Veenstra A, Amengual J, von Lintig J, Burant CJ, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 23920367.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Regenerative therapeutic potential of adipose stromal cells in early stage diabetic retinopathy. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84671. PMID: 24416262.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    35. NRF2 plays a protective role in diabetic retinopathy in mice. Diabetologia. 2014 Jan; 57(1):204-13. Xu Z, Wei Y, Gong J, Cho H, Park JK, Sung ER, Huang H, Wu L, Eberhart C, Handa JT, Du Y, Kern TS, Thimmulappa R, Barber AJ, Biswal S, Duh EJ. PMID: 24186494.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    36. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e78405. Veenstra AA, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 24205223.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Leukocytes from diabetic patients kill retinal endothelial cells: effects of berberine. Mol Vis. 2013; 19:2092-105. Tian P, Ge H, Liu H, Kern TS, Du L, Guan L, Su S, Liu P. PMID: 24146542.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsCTClinical Trials
    38. Photoreceptor cells are major contributors to diabetes-induced oxidative stress and local inflammation in the retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Oct 08; 110(41):16586-91. PMID: 24067647.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 111     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. IGFBP-3 and TNF-a regulate retinal endothelial cell apoptosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Aug 09; 54(8):5376-84. Zhang Q, Jiang Y, Miller MJ, Peng B, Liu L, Soderland C, Tang J, Kern TS, Pintar J, Steinle JJ. PMID: 23868984.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    40. ß2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice exhibit A diabetic retinopathy phenotype. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e70555. Jiang Y, Zhang Q, Liu L, Tang J, Kern TS, Steinle JJ. PMID: 23894672.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    41. MyD88-dependent pathways in leukocytes affect the retina in diabetes. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68871. PMID: 23874797.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in diabetic dogs and mice: relationship to glycemic control and retinal capillary degeneration. Mol Vis. 2013; 19:1413-21. Howell SJ, Mekhail MN, Azem R, Ward NL, Kern TS. PMID: 23825921.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Low-intensity far-red light inhibits early lesions that contribute to diabetic retinopathy: in vivo and in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May 01; 54(5):3681-90. Tang J, Du Y, Lee CA, Talahalli R, Eells JT, Kern TS. PMID: 23557732.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Deletion of aldose reductase from mice inhibits diabetes-induced retinal capillary degeneration and superoxide generation. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e62081. Tang J, Du Y, Petrash JM, Sheibani N, Kern TS. PMID: 23614016.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    45. Exclusion of aldose reductase as a mediator of ERG deficits in a mouse model of diabetic eye disease. Vis Neurosci. 2012 Nov; 29(6):267-74. Samuels IS, Lee CA, Petrash JM, Peachey NS, Kern TS. PMID: 23101909.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    46. Leukocytes regulate retinal capillary degeneration in the diabetic mouse via generation of leukotrienes. J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Jan; 93(1):135-43. Talahalli R, Zarini S, Tang J, Li G, Murphy R, Kern TS, Gubitosi-Klug RA. PMID: 23108096.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Marrow-derived cells regulate the development of early diabetic retinopathy and tactile allodynia in mice. Diabetes. 2012 Dec; 61(12):3294-303. Li G, Veenstra AA, Talahalli RR, Wang X, Gubitosi-Klug RA, Sheibani N, Kern TS. PMID: 22923475.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    48. Antibody-mediated retinal pericyte injury: implications for diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Aug 13; 53(9):5520-6. PMID: 22786897.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    49. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids preserve retinal function in type 2 diabetic mice. Nutr Diabetes. 2012 Jul 23; 2:e36. PMID: 23448719.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    
    50. Update on animal models of diabetic retinopathy: from molecular approaches to mice and higher mammals. Dis Model Mech. 2012 Jul; 5(4):444-56. Robinson R, Barathi VA, Chaurasia SS, Wong TY, Kern TS. PMID: 22730475.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 89     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    51. Acetylation of retinal histones in diabetes increases inflammatory proteins: effects of minocycline and manipulation of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC). J Biol Chem. 2012 Jul 27; 287(31):25869-80. Kadiyala CS, Zheng L, Du Y, Yohannes E, Kao HY, Miyagi M, Kern TS. PMID: 22648458.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Compound 49b prevents diabetes-induced apoptosis through increased IGFBP-3 levels. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 May 17; 53(6):3004-13. Zhang Q, Guy K, Pagadala J, Jiang Y, Walker RJ, Liu L, Soderland C, Kern TS, Ferry R, He H, Yates CR, Miller DD, Steinle JJ. PMID: 22467575.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Transcriptome analysis using next generation sequencing reveals molecular signatures of diabetic retinopathy and efficacy of candidate drugs. Mol Vis. 2012; 18:1123-46. Kandpal RP, Rajasimha HK, Brooks MJ, Nellissery J, Wan J, Qian J, Kern TS, Swaroop A. PMID: 22605924.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    54. Evidence for diffuse central retinal edema in vivo in diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29619. Berkowitz BA, Bissig D, Ye Y, Valsadia P, Kern TS, Roberts R. PMID: 22253747.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Beneficial effects of a novel RAGE inhibitor on early diabetic retinopathy and tactile allodynia. Mol Vis. 2011; 17:3156-65. Li G, Tang J, Du Y, Lee CA, Kern TS. PMID: 22171162.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Retinal pericytes inhibit activated T cell proliferation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Nov 21; 52(12):9005-10. Tu Z, Li Y, Smith DS, Sheibani N, Huang S, Kern T, Lin F. PMID: 22003106.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    57. The unconventional role of acid sphingomyelinase in regulation of retinal microangiopathy in diabetic human and animal models. Diabetes. 2011 Sep; 60(9):2370-8. PMID: 21771974.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    58. Increased tumor necrosis factor-a, cleaved caspase 3 levels and insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation in the ß1-adrenergic receptor knockout mouse. Mol Vis. 2011; 17:1822-8. Panjala SR, Jiang Y, Kern TS, Thomas SA, Steinle JJ. PMID: 21850156.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    59. Inflammation in diabetic retinopathy. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011 Sep; 30(5):343-58. Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 21635964.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 329     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    60. Validation of structural and functional lesions of diabetic retinopathy in mice. Mol Vis. 2010 Oct 19; 16:2121-31. Kern TS, Tang J, Berkowitz BA. PMID: 21139688.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    61. PP2A contributes to endothelial death in high glucose: inhibition by benfotiamine. . 2010 Dec; 299(6):R1610-7. Du Y, Kowluru A, Kern TS. PMID: 20881100.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    62. Comparison of three strains of diabetic rats with respect to the rate at which retinopathy and tactile allodynia develop. Mol Vis. 2010 Aug 15; 16:1629-39. Kern TS, Miller CM, Tang J, Du Y, Ball SL, Berti-Matera L. PMID: 20806092.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    63. Application of isoproterenol inhibits diabetic-like changes in the rat retina. Exp Eye Res. 2010 Aug; 91(2):171-9. Jiang Y, Walker RJ, Kern TS, Steinle JJ. PMID: 20493839.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    64. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in vascular endothelium inhibits the microvascular lesions of diabetic retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2010 May; 176(5):2550-8. Kern TS, Du Y, Miller CM, Hatala DA, Levin LA. PMID: 20363911.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    65. Effects of p38 MAPK inhibition on early stages of diabetic retinopathy and sensory nerve function. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Apr; 51(4):2158-64. Du Y, Tang J, Li G, Li G, Berti-Mattera L, Lee CA, Bartkowski D, Gale D, Monahan J, Niesman MR, Alton G, Kern TS. PMID: 20071676.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 56     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    66. Identification of primary retinal cells and ex vivo detection of proinflammatory molecules using flow cytometry. Mol Vis. 2009 Jul 17; 15:1383-9. Portillo JA, Okenka G, Kern TS, Subauste CS. PMID: 19626134.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    67. Increased basement membrane thickness, pericyte ghosts, and loss of retinal thickness and cells in dopamine beta hydroxylase knockout mice. Exp Eye Res. 2009 Jun; 88(6):1014-9. Steinle JJ, Kern TS, Thomas SA, McFadyen-Ketchum LS, Smith CP. PMID: 19176214.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    68. Retinal ion regulation in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy: natural history and the effect of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase overexpression. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 May; 50(5):2351-8. Berkowitz BA, Gradianu M, Bissig D, Kern TS, Roberts R. PMID: 19074809.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    69. Retinal ganglion cells in diabetes. J Physiol. 2008 Sep 15; 586(18):4401-8. Kern TS, Barber AJ. PMID: 18565995.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 136     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    70. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) meeting summary: Advances toward measuring diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy: from the bench to the clinic and back again (April 4-5, 2007, Baltimore, Maryland). J Diabetes Complications. 2009 May-Jun; 23(3):219-23. Kern TS, Berkowitz BA, Feldman EL. PMID: 18413183.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    71. 5-Lipoxygenase, but not 12/15-lipoxygenase, contributes to degeneration of retinal capillaries in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2008 May; 57(5):1387-93. Gubitosi-Klug RA, Talahalli R, Du Y, Nadler JL, Kern TS. PMID: 18346986.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 68     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    72. Targets of tyrosine nitration in diabetic rat retina. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008 May; 7(5):864-74. Zhan X, Du Y, Crabb JS, Gu X, Kern TS, Crabb JW. PMID: 18165258.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    73. Long-term, topical insulin administration increases the severity of retinal vascular pathology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Optometry. 2007 Nov; 78(11):574-81. Koevary SB, Nussey J, Kern TS. PMID: 17976619.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    74. Captopril inhibits capillary degeneration in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Curr Eye Res. 2007 Oct; 32(10):883-9. Zhang JZ, Xi X, Gao L, Kern TS. PMID: 17963108.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    75. Oxidative damage in the retinal mitochondria of diabetic mice: possible protection by superoxide dismutase. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Aug; 48(8):3805-11. Kanwar M, Chan PS, Kern TS, Kowluru RA. PMID: 17652755.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 130     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    76. Critical role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in degeneration of retinal capillaries in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetologia. 2007 Sep; 50(9):1987-1996. Zheng L, Du Y, Miller C, Gubitosi-Klug RA, Kern TS, Ball S, Berkowitz BA. PMID: 17583794.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 101     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    77. Ischemic vascular damage can be repaired by healthy, but not diabetic, endothelial progenitor cells. Diabetes. 2007 Apr; 56(4):960-7. Caballero S, Sengupta N, Afzal A, Chang KH, Li Calzi S, Guberski DL, Kern TS, Grant MB. PMID: 17395742.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 121     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    78. Glutaredoxin regulates nuclear factor kappa-B and intercellular adhesion molecule in Müller cells: model of diabetic retinopathy. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 27; 282(17):12467-74. Shelton MD, Kern TS, Mieyal JJ. PMID: 17324929.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    79. Topical administration of nepafenac inhibits diabetes-induced retinal microvascular disease and underlying abnormalities of retinal metabolism and physiology. Diabetes. 2007 Feb; 56(2):373-9. Kern TS, Miller CM, Du Y, Zheng L, Mohr S, Ball SL, Kim M, Jamison JA, Bingaman DP. PMID: 17259381.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 59     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    80. Salicylate-based anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit the early lesion of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2007 Feb; 56(2):337-45. Zheng L, Howell SJ, Hatala DA, Huang K, Kern TS. PMID: 17259377.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 78     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    81. Contributions of inflammatory processes to the development of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Exp Diabetes Res. 2007; 2007:95103. Kern TS. PMID: 18274606.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 242     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    82. Retinal ischemia and reperfusion causes capillary degeneration: similarities to diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jan; 48(1):361-7. Zheng L, Gong B, Hatala DA, Kern TS. PMID: 17197555.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 100     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    83. Reduction of diabetes-induced oxidative stress, fibrotic cytokine expression, and renal dysfunction in protein kinase Cbeta-null mice. Diabetes. 2006 Nov; 55(11):3112-20. Ohshiro Y, Ma RC, Yasuda Y, Hiraoka-Yamamoto J, Clermont AC, Isshiki K, Yagi K, Arikawa E, Kern TS, King GL. PMID: 17065350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 62     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    84. Vascular damage in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy: relation to neuronal and glial changes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Nov; 46(11):4281-7. Feit-Leichman RA, Kinouchi R, Takeda M, Fan Z, Mohr S, Kern TS, Chen DF. PMID: 16249509.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 97     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    85. The Ins2Akita mouse as a model of early retinal complications in diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jun; 46(6):2210-8. PMID: 15914643.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 194     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    86. Paradoxical effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and antioxidant vitamins in diabetic rats: improved retinopathy and renal mitochondrial defects but deterioration of collagen matrix glycoxidation and cross-linking. Diabetes. 2005 Feb; 54(2):517-26. Mustata GT, Rosca M, Biemel KM, Reihl O, Smith MA, Viswanathan A, Strauch C, Du Y, Tang J, Kern TS, Lederer MO, Brownlee M, Weiss MF, Monnier VM. PMID: 15677510.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    87. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy via regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB. Diabetes. 2004 Nov; 53(11):2960-7. Zheng L, Szabó C, Kern TS. PMID: 15504977.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 100     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    88. Interaction between NO and COX pathways in retinal cells exposed to elevated glucose and retina of diabetic rats. . 2004 Oct; 287(4):R735-41. Du Y, Sarthy VP, Kern TS. PMID: 15371279.
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    89. A central role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. FASEB J. 2004 Sep; 18(12):1450-2. Joussen AM, Poulaki V, Le ML, Koizumi K, Esser C, Janicki H, Schraermeyer U, Kociok N, Fauser S, Kirchhof B, Kern TS, Adamis AP. PMID: 15231732.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 399     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    90. Comparison of glucose influx and blood flow in retina and brain of diabetic rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004 Apr; 24(4):449-57. Puchowicz MA, Xu K, Magness D, Miller C, Lust WD, Kern TS, LaManna JC. PMID: 15087714.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    91. Regulation of the early subnormal retinal oxygenation response in experimental diabetes by inducible nitric oxide synthase. Diabetes. 2004 Jan; 53(1):173-8. Berkowitz BA, Luan H, Gupta RR, Pacheco D, Seidner A, Roberts R, Liggett J, Knoerzer DL, Connor JR, Du Y, Kern TS, Ito Y. PMID: 14693712.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    92. Hyperglycemia increases mitochondrial superoxide in retina and retinal cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003 Dec 01; 35(11):1491-9. Du Y, Miller CM, Kern TS. PMID: 14642397.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 123     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    93. Captopril inhibits glucose accumulation in retinal cells in diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Sep; 44(9):4001-5. Zhang JZ, Gao L, Widness M, Xi X, Kern TS. PMID: 12939321.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    94. A comprehensive analysis of the expression of crystallins in mouse retina. Mol Vis. 2003 Aug 28; 9:410-9. Xi J, Farjo R, Yoshida S, Kern TS, Swaroop A, Andley UP. PMID: 12949468.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 58     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    95. Non-uniform distribution of lesions and biochemical abnormalities within the retina of diabetic humans. Curr Eye Res. 2003 Jul; 27(1):7-13. Tang J, Mohr S, Du YD, Kern TS. PMID: 12868004.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    96. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB induced by diabetes and high glucose regulates a proapoptotic program in retinal pericytes. Diabetes. 2002 Jul; 51(7):2241-8. Romeo G, Liu WH, Asnaghi V, Kern TS, Lorenzi M. PMID: 12086956.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 122     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    97. Caspase activation in retinas of diabetic and galactosemic mice and diabetic patients. Diabetes. 2002 Apr; 51(4):1172-9. Mohr S, Xi X, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 11916941.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 62     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    98. Diabetes-induced nitrative stress in the retina, and correction by aminoguanidine. J Neurochem. 2002 Mar; 80(5):771-9. Du Y, Smith MA, Miller CM, Kern TS. PMID: 11948240.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 84     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    99. Correction of early subnormal superior hemiretinal DeltaPO(2) predicts therapeutic efficacy in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Nov; 42(12):2964-9. Berkowitz BA, Ito Y, Kern TS, McDonald C, Hawkins R. PMID: 11687543.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    100. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes and experimental galactosemia. VII. Effect of long-term administration of antioxidants on the development of retinopathy. Diabetes. 2001 Aug; 50(8):1938-42. Kowluru RA, Tang J, Kern TS. PMID: 11473058.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 135     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    101. Pharmacological inhibition of diabetic retinopathy: aminoguanidine and aspirin. Diabetes. 2001 Jul; 50(7):1636-42. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 11423486.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 79     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    102. Retinal glutamate in diabetes and effect of antioxidants. Neurochem Int. 2001 Apr; 38(5):385-90. Kowluru RA, Engerman RL, Case GL, Kern TS. PMID: 11222918.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 54     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    103. Response of capillary cell death to aminoguanidine predicts the development of retinopathy: comparison of diabetes and galactosemia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Nov; 41(12):3972-8. Kern TS, Tang J, Mizutani M, Kowluru RA, Nagaraj RH, Romeo G, Podesta F, Lorenzi M. PMID: 11053301.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 104     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    104. Retina accumulates more glucose than does the embryologically similar cerebral cortex in diabetic rats. Diabetologia. 2000 Nov; 43(11):1417-23. Tang J, Zhu XW, Lust WD, Kern TS. PMID: 11126412.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    105. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia VIII. Prevention by aminoguanidine. Curr Eye Res. 2000 Oct; 21(4):814-9. Kowluru RA, Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 11120572.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    106. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia. VI. Comparison of retinal and cerebral cortex metabolism, and effects of antioxidant therapy. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Feb; 26(3-4):371-8. Kowluru RA, Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 9895229.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    107. Glut1 and glut3 expression, but not capillary density, is increased by cobalt chloride in rat cerebrum and retina. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999 Jan 22; 64(1):24-33. Badr GA, Zhang JZ, Tang J, Kern TS, Ismail-Beigi F. PMID: 9889305.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    108. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia. IV. Antioxidant defense system. Free Radic Biol Med. 1997; 22(4):587-92. Kowluru RA, Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 9013121.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    109. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia. III. Effects of antioxidants. Diabetes. 1996 Sep; 45(9):1233-7. Kowluru RA, Kern TS, Engerman RL, Armstrong D. PMID: 8772728.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    110. A mouse model of diabetic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Aug; 114(8):986-90. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 8694735.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    111. Accelerated death of retinal microvascular cells in human and experimental diabetic retinopathy. J Clin Invest. 1996 Jun 15; 97(12):2883-90. Mizutani M, Kern TS, Lorenzi M. PMID: 8675702.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 223     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    112. Amelioration of vascular dysfunctions in diabetic rats by an oral PKC beta inhibitor. Science. 1996 May 03; 272(5262):728-31. Ishii H, Jirousek MR, Koya D, Takagi C, Xia P, Clermont A, Bursell SE, Kern TS, Ballas LM, Heath WF, Stramm LE, Feener EP, King GL. PMID: 8614835.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 167     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    113. Capillary lesions develop in retina rather than cerebral cortex in diabetes and experimental galactosemia. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Mar; 114(3):306-10. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 8600891.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    114. Retinopathy in animal models of diabetes. Diabetes Metab Rev. 1995 Jul; 11(2):109-20. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 7555563.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 56     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    115. Vascular lesions in diabetes are distributed non-uniformly within the retina. Exp Eye Res. 1995 May; 60(5):545-9. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 7615020.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    116. Retinopathy in galactosemic dogs continues to progress after cessation of galactosemia. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 Mar; 113(3):355-8. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 7887850.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    117. Galactose-induced retinal microangiopathy in rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995 Feb; 36(2):490-6. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 7843917.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    118. Comparison of retinal lesions in alloxan-diabetic rats and galactose-fed rats. Curr Eye Res. 1994 Dec; 13(12):863-7. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 7720392.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    119. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or galactosemia. II. Comparison of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in retina and cerebral cortex, and effects of antioxidant therapy. Curr Eye Res. 1994 Dec; 13(12):891-6. Kowluru R, Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 7720397.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    120. Characterization of the mechanism for the chronic activation of diacylglycerol-protein kinase C pathway in diabetes and hypergalactosemia. Diabetes. 1994 Sep; 43(9):1122-9. Xia P, Inoguchi T, Kern TS, Engerman RL, Oates PJ, King GL. PMID: 8070612.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 74     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    121. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or galactosemia: ATPases and glutathione. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Jun; 35(7):2962-7. Kern TS, Kowluru RA, Engerman RL. PMID: 8206713.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    122. Capillary basement membrane in retina, kidney, and muscle of diabetic dogs and galactosemic dogs and its response to 5 years aldose reductase inhibition. J Diabetes Complications. 1993 Oct-Dec; 7(4):241-5. Engerman RL, Kern TS, Garment MB. PMID: 8219367.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    123. Retinal polyol and myo-inositol in galactosemic dogs given an aldose-reductase inhibitor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991 Dec; 32(13):3175-7. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 1748548.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    124. Progression of incipient diabetic retinopathy during good glycemic control. Diabetes. 1987 Jul; 36(7):808-12. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 3556280.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 135     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    125. Is diabetic retinopathy preventable? Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1987; 27(4):225-9. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 3319932.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    126. Hyperglycemia as a cause of diabetic retinopathy. Metabolism. 1986 Apr; 35(4 Suppl 1):20-3. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 3083205.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    127. Microvascular metabolism in diabetes. Metabolism. 1986 Apr; 35(4 Suppl 1):24-7. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 3083206.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    128. Diabetic retinopathy: is it a consequence of hyperglycaemia? Diabet Med. 1985 May; 2(3):200-3. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 2952421.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    129. Hexitol production by canine retinal microvessels. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1985 Mar; 26(3):382-4. Kern TS, Engerman RL. PMID: 3972519.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    130. Experimental galactosemia produces diabetic-like retinopathy. Diabetes. 1984 Jan; 33(1):97-100. Engerman RL, Kern TS. PMID: 6360771.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 51     Fields:    Translation:Animals
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